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Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are mammalian neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a posttranslational conversion and brain accumulation of an insoluble, protease-resistant isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). Human and animal TSE agents exist as different phenotypes that can be(More)
Atypical neuropathological and molecular phenotypes of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have recently been identified in different countries. One of these phenotypes, named bovine "amyloidotic" spongiform encephalopathy (BASE), differs from classical BSE for the occurrence of a distinct type of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP), termed(More)
The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein abundant in neurons. Although its precise function is unknown, PrP(C) represents the substrate for the generation of a conformational pathogenic isoform (PrP(Sc)) in human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases. By applying(More)
We used immunohistochemistry to assess the role of humoral and cellular factors in endoneurial microangiopathy and epineurial vasculitis in 15 nerve biopsies of patients with axonal neuropathy and monoclonal or mixed cryoglobulinemia (CG). Deposition of immunoglobulins and cytolytic complement was detected in endoneurial capillaries of patients with mixed(More)
We investigated, by immunocytochemistry and immune electron microscopy, the immunophenotype, morphology and functional properties of human peripheral nervous system (PNS) macrophages (M phi) under normal and pathological conditions. Endoneurial M phi disclosed an elongated, ramified morphology, with the main processes oriented along the major axis of nerve(More)
Endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and glycoprotein E-selectin (ELAM-1) allow the homing of leukocytes to inflammation sites. A circulating form of ICAM-1 markedly increases in inflammatory CNS disorders. In the present study, the serum levels of ICAM-1, ELAM-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured in patients with acute(More)
UNLABELLED Fast, definitive diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is important in assessing patient care options and transmission risks. Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and nasal-brushing specimens are valuable in distinguishing CJD from non-CJD conditions but have required 2.5 to 5 days. Here, an(More)
In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) undergoes a conformational change from a prevailing alpha-helical structure to a beta-sheet-rich, protease-resistant isoform, termed PrP(Sc). PrP(C) has two characteristics: a high affinity for Cu(2+) and a strong pH-dependent conformation. Lines of evidence indicate that(More)
By immunizing prion knockout mice (Prnp-/-) with recombinant murine prion protein (PrPc), we obtained a panel of mAbs specific for murine PrPc. These mAbs can be applied to immunoblotting, cell surface immunofluorescent staining, and immunohistochemistry at light and electron microscopy. These mAbs recognize both the normal (PrPc) and protease-resistant(More)
An amber mutation at codon 145 (Y145stop) of the prion protein gene results in a variant of an inherited human prion disease named Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome. The characteristic features of this disorder include amyloid deposits of prion protein in cerebral parenchyma and vessels. We have studied the biosynthesis and processing of the prion(More)