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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of add-on rufinamide in children with refractory epilepsy symptomatic of neuronal migration disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS We recruited 69 patients in a prospective, open-label, add-on treatment study from six Italian and one German centers for pediatric and adolescent epilepsy care according to the(More)
It is well known that theta rhythms (3-8 Hz) are the fingerprint of hippocampus, and that neural activity accompanying encoding of words differs according to whether the items are later remembered or forgotten ["subsequent memory effect" (SME)]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that temporal synchronization of theta rhythms among hippocampus, amygdala, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the prognostic value of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) after epilepsy surgery, we investigated whether postoperative EEG abnormalities (interictal epileptiform discharges, IED; interictal slow activity, ISA) were associated with seizure outcome and other patient characteristics after resective surgery in patients with temporal lobe(More)
In order to investigate alterations in brain morphology and a possible temporal pattern of neuroanatomical abnormalities in the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of young patients with Down syndrome (DS), high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed on 21 children and(More)
A growing body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of plasminogen activators (PAs) in a number of physiologic and pathologic events in the CNS. Induction of both tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) has been observed in different experimental models of epilepsy and tPA has been implicated in the mechanisms(More)
PURPOSE GABAA receptors from the brain of patients afflicted with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) become less efficient (run-down) when repetitively activated by GABA. Experiments were designed to investigate whether the antiepileptic drug, levetiracetam (LEV), which is used as an adjunctive treatment for medically intractable MTLE, counteracts the(More)
Pharmacotherapeutic strategies have been difficult to develop for several forms of temporal lobe epilepsy, which are consequently treated by surgical resection. To examine this problem, we have studied the properties of transmitter receptors of tissues removed during surgical treatment. We find that when cell membranes, isolated from the temporal neocortex(More)
The properties of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABA(A) receptors) microtransplanted from the human epileptic brain to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes were compared with those recorded directly from neurons, or glial cells, in human brains slices. Cell membranes isolated from brain specimens, surgically obtained from six patients(More)
OBJECT Supratentorial cavernous angiomas may be associated with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Surgical removal of the malformation may result in seizure control in a number of patients, although in most studies a long history and high frequency of attacks have been recognized as indicators of unfavorable seizure outcome. In the literature, there are no(More)
Patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy may require intracranial investigations with subdural electrodes. These must be correctly localized with respect to the brain cortical surface and require appropriate monitoring. For this purpose, coregistration techniques, which fuse preimplantation 3D magnetic resonance imaging scans with postimplantation(More)