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Polycomb group (PcG) proteins bind to and repress genes in embryonic stem cells through lineage commitment to the terminal differentiated state. PcG repressed genes are commonly characterized by the presence of the epigenetic histone mark H3K27me3, catalyzed by the Polycomb repressive complex 2. Here, we present in vivo evidence for a previously(More)
The Republic of San Marino, a small, 23-square mile, independent country near the Adriatic Coast within Italy, has been noted to have a high incidence of gastric cancer in its 22,000 population (9% of all deaths from 1969-1983 with 33% of all cancer deaths attributed to gastric cancer). Gastroscopic biopsy studies on 284 first degree relatives of San(More)
Systemic injections of kainic acid (KA) cause epileptic seizures with delayed neuronal damage in the limbic system, particularly in the hippocampus. KA excitotoxicity activates complex signal transduction events that trigger apoptotic cell death. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway plays an important role in cell death, and the peptide D-JNKI1, a(More)
Kainic acid (KA) induced seizures provokes an extensive neuronal degeneration initiated by c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) as central mediators of excitotoxicity. However, the actions of their individual isoforms in cellular organelles including mitochondria remain to be elucidated. Here, we have studied the activation of JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 and their(More)
BACKGROUND AIMS Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), after intraparenchymal, intrathecal and endovenous administration, have been previously tested for cell therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1) mouse. However, every administration route has specific pros and cons. METHODS We administrated human MSCs (hMSCs) in the(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and the emergence of rigidity, tremor, and bradykinesia. Accumulating evidence indicates that PD is also accompanied by nonmotor symptoms including cognitive deficits, often manifested as impaired visuospatial memory. METHODS We(More)
Whether severe epilepsy could be a progressive disorder remains as yet unresolved. We previously demonstrated in a rat model of acquired focal cortical dysplasia, the methylazoxymethanol/pilocarpine - MAM/pilocarpine - rats, that the occurrence of status epilepticus (SE) and subsequent seizures fostered a pathologic process capable of modifying the(More)
In rodents as well as in many other mammalian and non-mammalian species, the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) system includes a parvocellular sexually dimorphic portion located within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) and the lateral septum. In this system, males have more cells and denser projections than females,(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormal regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 has been implicated in 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID), a motor complication affecting Parkinson's disease patients subjected to standard pharmacotherapy. We examined the involvement of mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), a downstream(More)
The amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder primarily involving motoneurons in the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. SOD1-G93A mice, which express multiple copies of the mutant form of the human Cu/Zn SOD, are one of the most widely used animal models for ALS pathology. However, the onset of the(More)