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The sequence-specific transcription factor NF-Y binds the CCAAT box, one of the sequence elements most frequently found in eukaryotic promoters. NF-Y is composed of the NF-YA and NF-YB/NF-YC subunits, the latter two hosting histone-fold domains (HFDs). The crystal structure of NF-Y bound to a 25 bp CCAAT oligonucleotide shows that the HFD dimer binds to the(More)
Response to stresses that alter the function of the endoplasmic reticulum is an important cellular function, which relies on the activation of specific genes. Several transcription factors (TFs) are known to affect this pathway. Using RT-PCR and ChIP assays, we studied the recruitment of promoter-specific TFs, general TFs and epigenetic marks in activated(More)
It is becoming clear that interconnected functional gene networks, rather than individual genes, govern stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. To identify epigenetic factors that impact on human epidermal stem cells we performed siRNA-based genetic screens for 332 chromatin modifiers. We developed a Bayesian mixture model to predict putative functional(More)
Epidermal homeostasis depends on a balance between stem cell renewal and differentiation and is regulated by extrinsic signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM). A powerful approach to analysing the pathways involved is to engineer single-cell microenvironments in which individual variables are precisely and quantitatively controlled. Here, we employ(More)
The hair follicle bulge in the epidermis associates with the arrector pili muscle (APM) that is responsible for piloerection ("goosebumps"). We show that stem cells in the bulge deposit nephronectin into the underlying basement membrane, thus regulating the adhesion of mesenchymal cells expressing the nephronectin receptor, α8β1 integrin, to the bulge.(More)
The association between tissue damage, chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we characterize a mouse model in which constitutive epidermal extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-MAP-kinase signalling results in epidermal inflammation, and skin wounding induces tumours. We show that tumour(More)
BACKGROUND Histone tails have a plethora of different post-translational modifications, which are located differently in "open" and "closed" parts of genomes. H3K4me3/H3K79me2 and H4K20me3 are among the histone marks associated with the early establishment of active and inactive chromatin, respectively. One of the most widespread promoter elements is the(More)
B-lymphocyte-induced nuclear maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1) was previously reported to define a sebaceous gland (SG) progenitor population in the epidermis. However, the recent identification of multiple stem cell populations in the hair follicle junctional zone has led us to re-evaluate its function. We show, in agreement with previous studies, that BLIMP1(More)
Differentiation of lymphocytes is frequently accompanied by cell cycle changes, interplay that is of central importance for immunity but is still incompletely understood. Here, we interrogate and quantitatively model how proliferation is linked to differentiation in CD4+ T cells. We perform ex vivo single-cell RNA-sequencing of CD4+ T cells during a mouse(More)
BACKGROUND Different histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are crucial in the regulation of chromatin, including methylations of H3 at Lysine 4 by the MLL complex. A relevant issue is how this is causally correlated to the binding of specific transcription factors (TFs) in regulatory regions. NF-Y is a TF that regulates 30% of mammalian promoters(More)