Giacinto Bagetta

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Astrocytes actively participate in synaptic integration by releasing transmitter (glutamate) via a calcium-regulated, exocytosis-like process. Here we show that this process follows activation of the receptor CXCR4 by the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). An extraordinary feature of the ensuing signaling cascade is the rapid extracellular(More)
Neuroinflammatory mediators play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia, exerting either deleterious effects on the progression of tissue damage or beneficial roles during recovery and repair. Within hours after the ischemic insult, increased levels of cytokines and chemokines enhance the expression of adhesion molecules on cerebral(More)
Recent studies have highlighted that female sex hormones represent potential neuroprotective agents against damage produced by acute and chronic injuries in the adult brain. Clinical reports have documented the effectiveness of estrogens to attenuate symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease, and to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease and(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate whether high intraocular pressure (IOP)-induced ischemia is associated with modifications in the retinal endocannabinoid metabolism and to ascertain whether drugs that interfere with the endocannabinoid system may prevent retinal damage due to ischemic insult. METHODS Anandamide (AEA) synthesis, transport, hydrolysis, and AEA(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. In particular, the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 contribute to disruption of the blood-brain barrier and hemorrhagic transformation following ischemic injury. In addition to extracellular matrix degradation, MMPs may directly regulate neuronal cell death through(More)
The persistent excitation of guinea-pig olfactory cortical neurones in vitro by the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (OXO-M) was investigated. In OXO-M (10-20 microM), a slowly-decaying afterdepolarization (sADP) accompanied by sustained repetitive firing was induced following a long depolarizing stimulus. The corresponding slow inward current (IADP)(More)
Endogenous levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, and the activities of the synthesizing and hydrolyzing enzymes, i.e. N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D and fatty acid amide hydrolase, respectively, were determined in the cortex and the striatum of rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Anandamide content(More)
The persistent excitatory effects of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M were investigated in guinea-pig olfactory cortex neurons in vitro (28-30 degrees C) using a single-microelectrode current-clamp/voltage-clamp technique. In 40% of recorded cells (type 1), bath-application of oxotremorine-M (2-10 microM; 1-2 min) induced a strong membrane(More)
Autophagy is the major intracellular degradation pathway that regulates long-lived proteins and organelles turnover. This process occurs at basal levels in all cells but it is rapidly upregulated in response to starvation and cellular stress. Although being recently implicated in neurodegeneration, it remains still unclear whether autophagy has a(More)
Endocannabinoids are involved in the modulation of pain and hyperalgesia. In this study we investigated the role of the endocannabinoid system in the migraine model based on nitroglycerin-induced hyperalgesia in the rat. Male rats were injected with nitroglycerin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle and sacrificed 4 h later. The medulla, the mesencephalon and the(More)