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Nowadays, the banking sector is increasingly relying on Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) in order to provide services to its customers. Although thousands of ATMs exist across many banks and different locations, the GUI and content of a typical ATM interface remains, more or less, the same. For instance, any ATM provides typical options for withdrawal,(More)
(ATMs) in order to provide services to its customers. Although thousands of ATMs exist across many banks and different locations, the GUI and content of a typical ATM interface remains, more or less, the same. For instance, any ATM provides typical options for withdrawl, electronic funds transfer, viewing of mini-statements etc. However, such a static(More)
During the past few years, the banking sector has started providing a variety of services to its customers. One of the most significant of such services has been the introduction of the Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) for providing online support to bank customers. The use of ATMs has reached its zenith in every developed country, and thousands of ATM(More)
In protocol tunnelling, one application protocol is encapsulated within another carrier protocol. Application-layer tunnels are security threat for networks because those applications which are sometimes restricted by firewalls like high data-rate games, peer-to-peer file sharing, video streaming, etc are carried through the allowed protocols like HTTP,(More)
Electrical interconnects in Data Center Networks (DCNs) suffer from various problems which include high energy consumption, high latency, fixed throughput of links and limited reconfigurability. Introducing optical interconnects in DCNs help to reduce these problems to a large extent. Optical interconnects are the technology of the future. To implement(More)
This work describes a statistical approach to detect applications which are running inside application layer tunnels. Application layer tunnels are a significant threat for network abuse and violation of acceptable internet usage policy of an organisation. In tunnelling, the prohibited application packets are encapsulated as payload of an allowed protocol(More)
Cloud computing and Web-based applications are creating a need for powerful data centers. Data centers have a great need for high bandwidth, low latency, low blocking probability, and low bit-error rate to sustain the interaction between different applications. Current data center networks (DCNs) suffer from several problems such as high-energy consumption,(More)
Emerging web based and cloud computing applications have created a need for powerful data center networks (DCN). Optical interconnects are replacing their electrical counterparts due to their benefits. Optical interconnects for DCNs are made up of various optical components like wavelength selective switch (WSS), tunable wavelength converter (TWC), arrayed(More)
A common problem faced by most countries is the estimation of precise transformation parameters between their national geodetic datum, and the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) global datum, used by the Global Positioning System (GPS). There can be considerable difference in positions of the local ellipsoidal datum and the global datum, sometimes up to(More)