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Proteases are now firmly established as major regulators of the "execution" phase of apoptosis. Here, we examine the role of proteases and their relationship to ceramide, a proposed mediator of apoptosis, in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced pathway of cell death. Ceramide induced activation of prICE, the protease that cleaves the death(More)
We describe the ninth variant of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) or Batten disease, due to defects in a putative new gene, CLN9. We therefore refer to the new variant as CLN9-deficient. Two Serbian sisters and two German brothers are described. Their clinical history is characteristic for juvenile NCL. They show similar gene expression patterns. The(More)
The sphingolipid ceramide mediates various cellular processes in response to several extracellular stimuli. Some genotoxic stresses are able to induce p53-dependent ceramide accumulation leading to cell death. However, in other cases, in the absence of the tumor suppressor protein p53, apoptosis proceeds partly due to the activity of this "tumor suppressor(More)
Users may view, print, copy, download and text and data-mine the content in such documents, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full Conditions of use: Abstract DOCK8 and MyD88 have been implicated in serologic memory. Here we report antibody responses were impaired and CD27 + memory B cells were severely reduced in DOCK8-deficient(More)
BACKGROUND The burden of invasive meningococcal disease is substantial in older adults in whom the case fatality rate is high. Travelers to regions with high rates of meningococcal disease, such as Hajj pilgrims, are at increased risk of meningococcal infection, and disease transmission from travelers to their close contacts has been documented. In younger(More)
The contribution of B cells to the pathology of Omenn syndrome and leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has not been previously investigated. We have studied a mut/mut mouse model of leaky SCID with a homozygous Rag1 S723C mutation that impairs, but does not abrogate, V(D)J recombination activity. In spite of a severe block at the pro-B cell stage(More)
Human infections with H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses are well documented. Exposure to poultry is the most important risk factor for humans becoming infected with these viruses. Data on human infection with other low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses is sparse but suggests that such infections may occur. Lebanon is a Mediterranean country lying(More)
Immunogenicity and safety of ACWY-TT compared with licensed ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS) in healthy adults, and lot-to-lot consistency of three ACWY-TT lots were evaluated in a phase III, open, controlled study. Adults aged 18–55 years were randomized to receive ACWY-TT (one of three lots) or MenPS. Serum bactericidal antibodies (rSBA) were measured(More)
Status epilepticus (SE) induces a number of events leading to programmed cell death (PCD). The aim of our work is to study the time sequence of activation of different factors in experimental SE (intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA) model). We studied ceramide, a known mediator of apoptosis in multiple models, sphingomyelinases (SMases), enzymes that break down(More)