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BACKGROUND Reelin (RELN) is a glycoprotein secreted preferentially by cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) interneurons (layers I and II) that binds to integrin receptors located on dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons or on GABAergic interneurons of layers III through V expressing the disabled-1 gene product (DAB1), a cytosolic adaptor(More)
Postmortem prefrontal cortices (PFC) (Brodmann's areas 10 and 46), temporal cortices (Brodmann's area 22), hippocampi, caudate nuclei, and cerebella of schizophrenia patients and their matched nonpsychiatric subjects were compared for reelin (RELN) mRNA and reelin (RELN) protein content. In all of the brain areas studied, RELN and its mRNA were(More)
The extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and ERK2 are members of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family that play an important role in transducing extracellular signals to the nucleus and have been implicated in a broad spectrum of biological responses. To test the hypothesis that MAP kinases may be involved in depression, we examined the(More)
BACKGROUND Suicide is a major public health concern. Although authors of many studies have examined the neurobiological aspects of suicide, the molecular mechanisms associated with suicidal behavior remain unclear. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the most important neurotrophins, after binding with and activating receptor tyrosine kinase B(More)
The physiological effects of pineal melatonin are primarily mediated by melatonin receptors located in the brain and periphery. Even though there are a number of studies demonstrating the regulatory role of melatonin in the development of dopaminergic behaviors, such as psychostimulant-induced diurnal locomotor sensitization or drug seeking, little is known(More)
In order to examine the role of serotonin-2 (5HT2) receptors in depression and suicide, we determined 5HT2 receptors using 125I-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as the binding ligand in platelets obtained from 20 normal control and 23 drug-free depressed patients. Our results indicate significantly increased 125I-LSD binding sites (Bmax) in the platelets of(More)
The in vivo RBC/plasma Li+ ratio is determined by the equilibrium between Li+ influx (ouabain-sensitive Na+-K+ pump and ouabain-insensitive leakage pathways) and Li+ efflux (phloretin-sensitive Li+-Na+ counterflow). A study of RBC Li+ transport via these pathways showed that a deficiency of Li+-Na+ counterflow was responsible for the high in vivo ratio(More)
BACKGROUND Teenage suicide is a major public health concern. Although there is some understanding of the psychosocial factors associated with teenage suicide, little is known about the neurobiologic factors of teenage suicide. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a critical phosphorylating enzyme in the phosphoinositide signaling pathway (which is involved in many(More)
BACKGROUND Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of a neurotrophin family and is involved in many physiological functions, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, and neuron survival in the human nervous system. Abnormalities of BDNF have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression based on observations that(More)
Protein kinase A (PKA), a critical component of the adenylyl cyclase signaling system, phosphorylates crucial proteins and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. The objective of the study was to examine if changes in PKA activity or in the protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of any of its subunits are related to the(More)