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Although considered an immunologically privileged site, the central nervous system (CNS) can display significant inflammatory responses, which may play a pathogenic role in a number of neurological diseases. Microglia appear to be particularly important for initiating and sustaining CNS inflammation. These cells exist in a quiescent form in the normal CNS,(More)
A continuous inflammatory state is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) evidenced by an increase in proinflammatory cytokines around beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits. In addition, functional loss of CD40L is shown to result in diminished Amyloid precursor proton (APP) processing and microglial activation, supporting a prominent role of CD40-CD40L in AD(More)
The cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) is of particular importance in the inflammatory response and recent findings have demonstrated a considerable role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In order to assess the possible putative role of a COX-2 polymorphism (765G/C) in AD, we examined its distribution in 161 community-based controls and 168 AD(More)
Key pathological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) include the accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) which, in excess, triggers pathological cascades including widespread inflammation, partly reflected by chronic microglial activation. It has previously been suggested that CD40/CD40L interaction promotes AD like pathology in transgenic mice.(More)
One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) plaques in the brain parenchyma. An inflammatory component to AD has been suggested in association with increased cytokine release. We have previously shown that CD40L stimulation of microglia induces increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta(More)
The main objective of this study was to determine whether elevated blood beta-amyloid (Abeta) levels among the first-degree relatives of patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are associated with vascular risk factors of AD. Serum Abeta was measured in samples from 197 cognitively normal first-degree relatives of patients with AD-like dementia. Study(More)
We have identified and sequenced a cDNA that encodes an apparent human orthologue of a yeast protein-X component (ScPDX1) of pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes. The new human cDNA that has been referred to as "HsPDX1" cDNA was cloned by use of the "database cloning" strategy and had a 1,506-bp open reading frame. The amino acid sequence of the(More)
Aβ deposits represent a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both soluble and insoluble Aβ species are considered to be responsible for initiating the pathological cascade that eventually leads to AD. Therefore, the identification of therapeutic approaches that can lower Aβ production or accumulation remains a priority. NFκB has been(More)
Several large population-based or clinical trial studies have suggested that certain dihydropyridine (DHP) L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs) used for the treatment of hypertension may confer protection against the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, other studies with drugs of the same class have shown no beneficial clinical effects. To(More)
The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is widely expressed in the nervous system and increased NF-kappaB immunoreactivity has been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains in the nuclei of neurons within the vicinity of diffuse beta-amyloid plaques. Beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides are the main constituent of senile plaques and are known(More)