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Plant diseases cause massive losses in agriculture. Increasing the natural defenses of plants may reduce the impact of phytopathogens on agricultural productivity. Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) detect microbes by recognizing conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although the overall importance of PAMP-triggered immunity for plant(More)
Plants are continually exposed to pathogen attack but usually remain healthy because they can activate defences upon perception of microbes. However, pathogens have evolved to overcome plant immunity by delivering effectors into the plant cell to attenuate defence, resulting in disease. Recent studies suggest that some effectors may manipulate host(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as sequence-specific guides that control gene expression by post-transcriptional gene silencing. Many miRNAs influence plant development by regulating the accumulation of transcripts that encode transcription factors. Mutants defective in miRNA accumulation, such as dcl1, hen1, hyl1 and ago1, have pleiotropic developmental(More)
Defense against pathogens in multicellular eukaryotes depends on intracellular immune receptors, yet surveillance by these receptors is poorly understood. Several plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptors carry fusions with other protein domains. The Arabidopsis RRS1-R NB-LRR protein carries a C-terminal WRKY DNA binding domain(More)
Virus-induced gene silencing identified the Avr9/Cf-9 RAPIDLY ELICITED gene ACRE189 as essential for the Cf-9- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in Nicotiana benthamiana. We report a role for ACRE189 in disease resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). ACRE189 (herein renamed Avr9/Cf-9-INDUCED F-BOX1 [ACIF1])(More)
Given the potential health benefits of polyphenolic compounds in the diet, there is a growing interest in the generation of food crops enriched with health-protective flavonoids. We undertook a series of metabolite analyses of tomatoes ectopically expressing the Delila and Rosea1 transcription factor genes from snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), paying(More)
Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) disease resistance (R) proteins recognize specific "avirulent" pathogen effectors and activate immune responses. NB-LRR proteins structurally and functionally resemble mammalian Nod-like receptors (NLRs). How NB-LRR and NLR proteins activate defense is poorly understood. The divergently transcribed(More)
The genome of the pathogenic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis is predicted to encode at least 134 high-confidence effectors (HaRxL) carrying the RxLR motif implicated in their translocation into plant cells. However, only four avirulence genes (ATR1, ATR13, ATR5, and ATR39) have been isolated. This indicates that identification of HaRxL effectors(More)
Phenylpropanoids comprise an important class of plant secondary metabolites. A number of transcription factors have been used to upregulate-specific branches of phenylpropanoid metabolism, but by far the most effective has been the fruit-specific expression of AtMYB12 in tomato, which resulted in as much as 10% of fruit dry weight accumulating as flavonols(More)
(2014) Probing formation of cargo/importin-α transport complexes in plant cells using a pathogen effector. Copyright and reuse: The Warwick Research Archive Portal (WRAP) makes this work of researchers of the University of Warwick available open access under the following conditions. This article is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0(More)