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Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) entry requires fusion cofactors on the CD4+ target cell. Fusin, a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor, serves as a cofactor for T cell line-tropic isolates. The chemokines RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta, which suppress infection by macrophage-tropic isolates, selectively inhibited(More)
An improved baculovirus expression vector was developed to expedite screening and facilitate oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. This vector contained twin promoters derived from the P10 and polyhedrin genes of Autographica californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. The P10 promoter directed the synthesis of beta-galactosidase, whereas the polyhedrin(More)
The chemokine receptors CXCR4, CCR2B, CCR3, and CCR5 have recently been shown to serve along with CD4 as coreceptors for HIV-1. The tropisms of HIV-1 strains for subgroups of CD4(+) cells can be explained, at least partly, by the selective use of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We have identified a novel human gene, STRL33, located on chromosome 3 that(More)
CC chemokine receptors 1 and 3 (CCR1 and CCR3) are expressed by eosinophils; however, factors regulating their expression and function have not previously been defined. Here we analyze chemokine receptor expression and function during eosinophil differentiation, using the eosinophilic cell line HL-60 clone 15 as a model system. RNA for CCR1, -3, -4, and -5(More)
BACKGROUND CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a cell entry cofactor for macrophage-tropic isolates of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Recently, an inactive CCR5 allele (designated here as CCR5-2) was identified that confers resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygotes and slows the rate of progression to AIDS in heterozygotes. The reports conflict on(More)
HIV-1 infection requires the presence of specific chemokine receptors on CD4+ target cells to enable the fusion reactions involved in virus entry. CCR5 is a major fusion coreceptor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates. HIV-1 entry and fusion are mediated by the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) and are inhibited by CCR5 ligands, but the mechanisms are(More)
Work in this laboratory previously demonstrated that the tropism of different human immunodeficiency type 1 isolates for infection of human CD4+ continuous cell lines (e.g., T-cell lines and HeLa-CD4 transformants) versus primary macrophages is associated with parallel intrinsic fusogenic specificities of the corresponding envelope glycoproteins (Envs). For(More)
CCR5Delta32 is a loss-of-function mutation that abolishes cell surface expression of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coreceptor CCR5 and provides genetic resistance to HIV infection and disease progression. Since CXCR4 and other HIV coreceptors also exist, we hypothesized that CCR5Delta32-mediated resistance may be due not only to the loss of CCR5(More)
The chemokine receptors CXCR4, CCR2b, CCR3, and CCR5 are cell entry coreceptors for HIV-1. Using an HIV-1 envelope (Env)-dependent cell-cell fusion model of entry, we show that CCR3 can interact with Envs from certain macrophage (M)-tropic strains (which also use CCR5), T cell line (TCL)-tropic laboratory-adapted strains (which also use CXCR4), and a(More)