Ghada El-Ayat

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Apocrine metaplasia is a very common finding in the female breast after the age of 25. It is so common that many people regard it as a normal component of the breast. This, however, is only really the case in apocrine sweat glands of the axilla and in the peri-areolar apocrine glands. The apocrine cell does, however, contribute to a number of different(More)
AIMS Three major proteins present in breast gross cystic disease fluid and expressed by the cyst lining apocrine epithelium are gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), apolipoprotein-D (APO-D; GCDFP-24) and zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZnGP; GCDFP-44). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of these proteins in ductal carcinoma in(More)
Overexpression and/or amplification of c-myc oncogene are known to occur in human breast carcinomas, particularly those of high grade. Apocrine metaplasia (APM) is a common finding within fibrocystic change, and in some cases appears to be associated with an elevated risk of subsequent breast cancer. It has been suggested that apocrine metaplasia within(More)
Recently, there have been studies suggesting that apocrine adenosis of the breast is a putative precancerous lesion, despite the generally held view that apocrine adenosis is benign. Because apocrine adenosis is almost always present as a small area or areas, it cannot be easily studied by conventional methods. In this study, areas of apocrine adenosis were(More)
Molecular evidence has recently suggested a number of different pathways leading to the development of ductal carcinoma of the breast. The links between atypical ductal hyperplasia and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular neoplasia and lobular carcinoma are well known pathologically, but high-grade in situ and invasive carcinomas appear to have a(More)
Aims: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast has been diagnosed increasingly since the advent of mammographic screening. In contrast to the situation in invasive breast carcinoma, there are no reports on androgen receptor (AR) status in DCIS and few reports on oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. Methods: AR expression was examined in 57(More)
Amplification of the c-erbB2 oncogene and numerical aberrations of chromosome 17 occur in human breast carcinomas. Apocrine adenosis (AA) of the breast has been shown occasionally to have c-erbB2 overexpression and a possible premalignant potential, but little is known about cellular level genetic alterations in AA of the breast. Fluorescence in situ(More)
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and allelic imbalance (AI) at loci reported to show allele loss and/or imbalance in preinvasive and invasive breast cancer were examined in 41 cases of apocrine metaplasia (APM) of the breast using a microdissection technique, polymorphic microsatellite markers, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Occasional examples of LOH(More)
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