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If 2 words are presented successively within 500 ms, subjects often miss the 2nd word. This attentional blink reflects a limited capacity to attend to incoming information. Memory effects were studied for words that fell within an attentional blink. Unrelated words were presented in a modified rapid serial visual presentation task at varying stimulus-onset(More)
Working memory (WM), including a 'central executive', is used to guide behavior by internal goals or intentions. We suggest that WM is best described as a set of three interdependent functions which are implemented in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These functions are maintenance, control of attention and integration. A model for the maintenance function is(More)
The authors discuss some problems in learning networks. They propose a new learning procedure, CALM (Categorizing And Learning Module). CALM uses pairs of excitatory representation nodes and inhibitory veto nodes, bound together in a modular structure with an arousal node. Learning in the module is enhanced by a nonspecific external node connected to the(More)
We used the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 to investigate if the formation, confidence, and nature of flashbulb memories were dependent on age. In addition, we compared the consistency over time of flashbulb memories with event memory, i.e., widely publicized factual details of the event, in a group of young respondents. College students (n=34, M(More)
Models of long-term and working memory assume various forms of binding processes. Long-term memory consolidation involves a process whereby memory representations are first bound by the hippocampus and certain surrounding areas. Then, a consolidation process is assumed whereby the binding role is transferred from the hippocampus to neocortical sites, a(More)
Although emotionally arousing events are more memorable than ordinary daily life events, the nature of memories for emotionally arousing events is widely debated. On the one hand, researchers consider memories for highly emotional events as malleable and subject to distortion, while on the other hand these memories are perceived as both indelible and(More)
The U-shaped serial position curve (SPC) of single-trial free recall is a well-established empirical fact, and there is ample evidence that it is the result of two different memory functions. However, it is insufficiently clear whether the same holds true for the SPC of multi-trial free recall. Free recall test measurements of two large heterogeneous groups(More)
Effects of full and divided attention during study on explicit and implicit memory performance were investigated in two experiments. Study time was manipulated in a third experiment. Experiment 1 showed that both similar and dissociative effects can be found in the two kinds of memory test, depending on the difficulty of the concurrent tasks used in the(More)