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OBJECTIVE Little is known about the cost of paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed the average cost of providing paediatric ART in South Africa during the first 2 years after ART initiation, stratified by patient outcomes. METHODS We collected data on outpatient resource use and treatment outcomes(More)
BACKGROUND South Africa has the world's largest number of patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART). As coverage expands beyond urban environments, the cost of care is becoming increasingly important. METHODS Health care cost data for the first year after initiation were analyzed for cohorts of patients in a semiurban and an urban public sector ART(More)
OBJECTIVE We estimated the incremental cost and impact on diagnosis and treatment uptake of national rollout of Xpert MTB/RIF technology (Xpert) for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB above the cost of current guidelines for the years 2011 to 2016 in South Africa. METHODS We parameterised a population-level decision model with data from national-level TB(More)
BACKGROUND New WHO guidelines recommend ART initiation for HIV-positive persons with CD4 cell counts ≤500 cells/µL, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers must consider whether to further expand ART eligibility accordingly. METHODS We used multiple independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa, Zambia,(More)
BACKGROUND There are few published estimates of the cost of pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa. Our objective was to estimate the outpatient cost of providing ART to children remaining in care at six public sector clinics in Zambia during the first three years after ART initiation, stratified by service delivery site and time on treatment. (More)
BACKGROUND Use of Xpert MTB/RIF is being scaled up throughout South Africa for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). A large proportion of HIV-infected patients with possible TB are Xpert-negative on their initial test, and the existing diagnostic algorithm calls for these patients to have sputum culture (Xpert followed by culture (X/C)). We modelled the(More)
OBJECTIVE The World Health Organization recommends using Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), but there is little evidence on the optimal placement of Xpert instruments in public health systems. We used recent South African data to compare the cost of placing Xpert at points of TB treatment (all primary clinics and hospitals) with(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization is currently developing guidelines on screening for tuberculosis disease to inform national screening strategies. This process is complicated by significant gaps in knowledge regarding mass screening. This study aimed to assess feasibility, uptake, yield, treatment outcomes, and costs of adding an active tuberculosis(More)
Policy discussions about the feasibility of massively scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) to reduce HIV transmission and incidence hinge on accurately projecting the cost of such scale-up in comparison to the benefits from reduced HIV incidence and mortality. We review the available literature on modelled estimates of the cost of providing ART to(More)
Foreigners, including displaced persons, often have limited health-care access, especially to HIV services. Outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africans and foreigners were compared at a Johannesburg non-governmental clinic. Records were reviewed of 1297 adults enrolled between April 2004 and March 2007 (568 self-identified foreigners, 431(More)