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Carnitine acyltransferases have crucial roles in the transport of fatty acids for beta-oxidation. Dysregulation of these enzymes can lead to serious diseases in humans, and they are targets for therapeutic development against diabetes. We report the crystal structures of murine carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT), alone and in complex with its substrate(More)
Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the exchange of acyl groups between carnitine and coenzyme A (CoA). These enzymes include carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), carnitine octanoyltransferase (CrOT), and carnitine palmitoyltransferases (CPTs). CPT-I and CPT-II are crucial for the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the mitochondria by enabling their(More)
Bacterial ATP-binding cassette transport systems for high-affinity uptake of zinc and manganese use a cluster 9 solute-binding protein. Structures of four cluster 9 transport proteins have been determined previously. However, the structural determinants for discrimination between zinc and manganese remain under discussion. To further investigate the(More)
The BEACH domain is highly conserved in a large family of eukaryotic proteins, and is crucial for their functions in vesicle trafficking, membrane dynamics and receptor signaling. However, it does not share any sequence homology with other proteins. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.9 A resolution of the BEACH domain of human neurobeachin. It shows(More)
BACKGROUND Glutamate mutase (Glm) equilibrates (S)-glutamate with (2S,3S)-3-methylaspartate. Catalysis proceeds with the homolytic cleavage of the organometallic bond of the cofactor to yield a 5'-desoxyadenosyl radical. This radical then abstracts a hydrogen atom from the protein-bound substrate to initiate the rearrangement reaction. Glm from Clostridium(More)
Product release is partially rate determining in the isomerization reaction catalyzed by Triosephosphate Isomerase, the conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, probably because an active-site loop movement is necessary to free the product from confinement in the active-site. The timescale of the catalytic loop motion and of(More)
Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) belongs to the family of AMP-forming enzymes that also includes acyl-CoA synthetases, firefly luciferase, and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. ACS catalyzes the two-step activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA: formation of an acetyl-AMP intermediate from acetate and ATP and the transfer of the acetyl group to CoA. In(More)
In enzyme catalysis, where exquisitely positioned functionality is the sine qua non, atomic coordinates for a Michaelis complex can provide powerful insights into activation of the substrate. We focus here on the initial proton transfer of the isomerization reaction catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase and present the crystal structure of its Michaelis(More)
Activation of the p53 tumor suppressor by cellular stress leads to variable responses ranging from growth inhibition to apoptosis. TIGAR is a novel p53-inducible gene that inhibits glycolysis by reducing cellular levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an activator of glycolysis and inhibitor of gluconeogenesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical(More)
The combined molecular-replacement protocol uses a limited six-dimensional search to solve a structure by the molecular-replacement method, with the sampling of the rotational degrees of freedom guided by the rotation function. This protocol therefore automatically combines the information on the rotational and translational parameters of the search model.(More)