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—A high accuracy current source has been developed for the generation of very small currents (below 200 pA) based on applying a linear voltage ramp to a capacitor. Using software-controlled compensation for the nonlinearity of the voltage ramp, a stable current can be reached within a few seconds. A voltage ramp within typically 10 10 6 of any desired value(More)
—A new methodology for conductivity measurements, where square metallic samples are measured with the Van der Pauw technique, has been successfully implemented. The uncertainty obtained is 0.04% and a comparison between national metrology institutes gives an agreement of the measurement values within 0.035%. Major advantages of the new method are that(More)