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Lantibiotics are (methyl)lanthionine-containing bacterial peptides. (Methyl)lanthionines are posttranslationally introduced into the prepropeptides by biosynthetic enzymes that dehydrate serines and threonines and couple these dehydrated residues to cysteine residues. Thirty seven lantibiotic primary structures have been proposed to date, but little is(More)
This review discusses the state-of-the-art in molecular research on the most prominent and widely applied lantibiotic, i.e., nisin. The developments in understanding its complex biosynthesis and mode of action are highlighted. Moreover, novel applications arising from engineering either nisin itself, or from the construction of totally novel dehydrated(More)
Nisin is a posttranslationally modified antimicrobial peptide that is widely used as a food preservative. It contains five cyclic thioethers of varying sizes that are installed by a single enzyme, NisC. Reported here are the in vitro reconstitution of the cyclization process and the x-ray crystal structure of the NisC enzyme. The structure reveals(More)
Nisin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that belongs to the group of lantibiotics. It is thought to form oligomeric pores in the target membrane by a mechanism that requires the transmembrane electrical potential delta psi and that involves local pertubation of the lipid bilayer structure. Here we show that nisin does not form exclusively(More)
Production of bacteriocins by lactic acid bacteria is in some cases regulated by a quorum sensing mechanism that involves a secreted bacteriocin-like peptide pheromone. In the case of Lactobacillus plantarum C11, this pheromone, the 26-mer plantaricin A (PlnA), has the interesting property of having both bacteriocin and pheromone activities. To gain insight(More)
Lactic acid bacteria produce several types of pore forming peptides. Class I bacteriocins are lantibiotics that contain (methyl)lanthionine residues that may form intramolecular thioether rings. These peptides generally have a broad spectrum of activity and form unstable pores. Class II bacteriocins are small, heat stable peptides mostly with a narrow(More)
Nisin A is a pentacyclic peptide antibiotic produced by Lactococcus lactis. The leader peptide of prenisin keeps nisin inactive and has a role in inducing NisB- and NisC-catalyzed modifications of the propeptide and NisT-mediated export. The highly specific NisP cleaves off the leader peptide from fully modified and exported prenisin. We present here a(More)
We studied the differential effect of tryptophan-N-formylated gramicidin on uninfected and Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Trp-N-formylated gramicidin induces a much faster leakage of K+ from infected cells than from uninfected cell whereas, and at an even lower concentration, gramicidin A' causes a rapid K+ leakage from both uninfected and(More)
Lactococcin G is a novel lactococcal bacteriocin whose activity depends on the complementary action of two peptides, termed alpha and beta. Peptide synthesis of the alpha and beta peptides yielded biologically active lactococcin G, which was used in mode-of-action studies on sensitive cells of Lactococcus lactis. Approximately equivalent amounts of both(More)
Lantibiotics are lanthionine-containing peptide antibiotics. Nisin, encoded by nisA, is a pentacyclic lantibiotic produced by some Lactococcus lactis strains. Its thioether rings are posttranslationally introduced by a membrane-bound enzyme complex. This complex is composed of three enzymes: NisB, which dehydrates serines and threonines; NisC, which couples(More)