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Lantibiotics are (methyl)lanthionine-containing bacterial peptides. (Methyl)lanthionines are posttranslationally introduced into the prepropeptides by biosynthetic enzymes that dehydrate serines and threonines and couple these dehydrated residues to cysteine residues. Thirty seven lantibiotic primary structures have been proposed to date, but little is(More)
This review discusses the state-of-the-art in molecular research on the most prominent and widely applied lantibiotic, i.e., nisin. The developments in understanding its complex biosynthesis and mode of action are highlighted. Moreover, novel applications arising from engineering either nisin itself, or from the construction of totally novel dehydrated(More)
Nisin is a posttranslationally modified antimicrobial peptide that is widely used as a food preservative. It contains five cyclic thioethers of varying sizes that are installed by a single enzyme, NisC. Reported here are the in vitro reconstitution of the cyclization process and the x-ray crystal structure of the NisC enzyme. The structure reveals(More)
Nisin A is a pentacyclic peptide antibiotic produced by Lactococcus lactis. The leader peptide of prenisin keeps nisin inactive and has a role in inducing NisB- and NisC-catalyzed modifications of the propeptide and NisT-mediated export. The highly specific NisP cleaves off the leader peptide from fully modified and exported prenisin. We present here a(More)
Lantibiotics are lanthionine-containing peptide antibiotics. Nisin, encoded by nisA, is a pentacyclic lantibiotic produced by some Lactococcus lactis strains. Its thioether rings are posttranslationally introduced by a membrane-bound enzyme complex. This complex is composed of three enzymes: NisB, which dehydrates serines and threonines; NisC, which couples(More)
Post-translationally introduced dehydroamino acids often play an important role in the activity and receptor specificity of biologically active peptides. In addition, a dehydroamino acid can be coupled to a cysteine to yield a cyclized peptide with increased biostability and resistance against proteolytic degradation and/or modified specificity. The(More)
Although nisin is a model lantibiotic, our knowledge of the specific interactions of prenisin with its modification enzymes remains fragmentary. Here, we demonstrate that the nisin modification enzymes NisB and NisC can be pulled down in vitro from Lactococcus lactis by an engineered His-tagged prenisin. This approach enables us to determine important(More)
Lanthipeptides are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides produced by microorganisms. The name lanthipeptide is derived from lanthionine, a thioether-bridged amino acid installed by dedicated modification enzymes. Serines and threonines are dehydrated and subsequently coupled to cysteines, thus forming intramolecular lanthionine(More)
Since the recent discovery that the nisin modification and transport machinery can be used to produce and modify peptides unrelated to nisin, specific questions arose concerning the specificity of the modification enzymes involved and the limits of their promiscuity with respect to the dehydration and cyclization processes. The nisin leader peptide has been(More)
This review presents recommended nomenclature for the biosynthesis of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), a rapidly growing class of natural products. The current knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of the >20 distinct compound classes is also reviewed, and commonalities are discussed.