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The black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis is known as a rare etiologic agent of neurotropic infections in humans, occurring particularly in East and Southeast Asia. In search of its natural habitat, a large sampling was undertaken in temperate as well as in tropical climates. Sampling sites were selected on the basis of the origins of previously isolated(More)
Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank.(More)
Ferritin is the iron-storage protein responsible for sequestering excess iron, to be stored in a safe way in the liver or to be shed with the intestinal epithelial cells. The properties of ferritin in iron-overload-susceptible birds have not been elucidated. Furthermore, there is only scarce information on mucosal ferritin, with no information at all in(More)
Three ampicillin and three amoxycillin formulations (tablets and capsules, administered orally, and oily suspensions, injected intramuscularly (i.m.) and subcutaneously (s.c.] were studied in twenty adult homing pigeons (Columba livia). Bioavailability, pharmacokinetics and recovery were determined for each product and administration route. A standard dose(More)
Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and amoxycillin after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration was investigated in homing pigeons. The pharmacokinetic parameters in a cross-over study after intravenous administration of the sodium salts were comparable. The only significant difference was found for the distribution phase. The bioavailability after(More)
This paper describes the signs, clinical pathology, and postmortem findings in 14 young African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) that were naturally infected with psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) virus (psittacine circovirus). All but two of the parrots had severe leukopenia at clinical presentation. Two other parrots also had severe(More)
Two nightjars (Caprimulgus europaeus) from a bird park in the Netherlands died suddenly, with no clinical signs, within 1 month of each other. The main pathologic findings at necropsy were splenomegaly and hepatic necrosis. On histologic examination, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies consistent with avian polyomavirus were observed in the liver, spleen,(More)
Polyomaviruses of birds are aetiological agents of acute inflammatory diseases in non-immunocompromised hosts, which is in contrast to mammalian polyomaviruses. VP4, an additional structural protein encoded by the viral genomes of the known avian polyomaviruses, has been suggested to contribute to pathogenicity through loss of cells following induction of(More)
Recently a novel avian bornavirus has been described that has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent for proventricular dilatation disease or macaw wasting disease. This article describes two macaws that shed avian bornaviral RNA sequences and demonstrated anti-avian bornavirus antibodies as revealed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain(More)