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The ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) leads to rapid activation of dendritic cells (DCs). However, the metabolic requirements that support this process remain poorly defined. We found that DC glycolytic flux increased within minutes of exposure to TLR agonists and that this served an essential role in supporting the de novo synthesis of fatty acids for(More)
CD8(+) T cells undergo major metabolic changes upon activation, but how metabolism influences the establishment of long-lived memory T cells after infection remains a key question. We have shown here that CD8(+) memory T cells, but not CD8(+) T effector (Teff) cells, possessed substantial mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity (SRC). SRC is the extra(More)
Generation of CD8(+) memory T cells requires metabolic reprogramming that is characterized by enhanced mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation (FAO). However, where the fatty acids (FA) that fuel this process come from remains unclear. While CD8(+) memory T cells engage FAO to a greater extent, we found that they acquired substantially fewer long-chain FA from(More)
TLR agonists initiate a rapid activation program in dendritic cells (DCs) that requires support from metabolic and bioenergetic resources. We found previously that TLR signaling promotes aerobic glycolysis and a decline in oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) and that glucose restriction prevents activation and leads to premature cell death. However, it(More)
Melioidosis is caused by the soil saprophyte Burkholderia pseudomallei and is endemic in Southeast Asia. The pathogenesis of melioidosis is still largely unknown, although gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) seems to play an obligatory role in host defense. Previously, we have shown that IFN-gamma production in melioidosis is controlled in part by interleukin-18(More)
Naive T cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to support the increased energetic and biosynthetic demands of effector T cell function. However, how nutrient availability influences T cell metabolism and function remains poorly understood. Here we report plasticity in effector T cell metabolism in response to changing nutrient availability. Activated T cells(More)
A characteristic of memory T (TM) cells is their ability to mount faster and stronger responses to reinfection than naïve T (TN) cells do in response to an initial infection. However, the mechanisms that allow this rapid recall are not completely understood. We found that CD8 TM cells have more mitochondrial mass than CD8 TN cells and, that upon activation,(More)
Clearance or control of pathogens or tumors usually requires T-cell-mediated immunity. As such, understanding the mechanisms that govern the function, maintenance, and persistence of T cells will likely lead to new treatments for controlling disease. During an immune response, T-cell development is marked by striking changes in metabolism. There is a(More)
Toll-like receptors play an essential role in the innate recognition of micro-organisms by the host. CD14 is one of the extracellular adaptor proteins required for recognition of Gram-negative bacteria and possibly also Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, we intranasally infected wild-type (WT) and CD14 knock-out (KO) mice with virulent M. tuberculosis(More)
BACKGROUND  Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative organism in community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumococci that try to invade the lower airways are recognized by innate immune cells through pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M is a proximal inhibitor(More)