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Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T lymphocytes (CAR-T cells) has had less striking therapeutic effects in solid tumors than in lymphoid malignancies. Although active tumor-mediated immunosuppression may have a role in limiting the efficacy of CAR-T cells, functional changes in T lymphocytes after their ex vivo manipulation may(More)
BACKGROUND Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in childhood and has a poor prognosis. Here we assessed the capability of ex vivo expanded cytokine-induced killer cells to lyse both alveolar and embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and investigated the mechanisms involved. DESIGN AND METHODS Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are key components of the innate immune system, providing potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that the tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β)/SMAD signaling pathway is an important mechanism for NK cell immune evasion in childhood B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We characterized NK cells in 50 consecutive children with B-ALL at(More)
BMI-1 and EZH2 are polycomb group (PcG) proteins that maintain self-renewal of stem cells, and are overexpressed in leukemia. To investigate the potential of PcG proteins as leukemia-associated antigens, and as targets for graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects, we studied cells obtained from 86 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and 25 human(More)
PURPOSE Adoptive transfer of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) induces objective tumor responses in clinical trials. In vivo expansion and persistence of these cells are crucial to achieve sustained clinical responses. We aimed to(More)
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