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In attempts to develop a method of introducing DNA into Pyrococcus furiosus, we discovered a variant within the wild-type population that is naturally and efficiently competent for DNA uptake. A pyrF gene deletion mutant was constructed in the genome, and the combined transformation and recombination frequencies of this strain allowed marker replacement by(More)
The first complete-genome DNA microarray was constructed for a hyperthermophile or a nonhalophilic archaeon by using the 2,065 open reading frames (ORFs) that have been annotated in the genome of Pyrococcus furiosus (optimal growth temperature, 100 degrees C). This was used to determine relative transcript levels in cells grown at 95 degrees C with either(More)
The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus uses carbohydrates as a carbon source and produces acetate, CO2, and H2 as end products. When S(0) is added to a growing culture, within 10 min the rate of H2 production rapidly decreases and H(2)S is detected. After 1 hour cells contain high NADPH- and coenzyme A-dependent S(0) reduction activity (0.7(More)
An early divergence in evolution has resulted in two prokaryotic domains, the Bacteria and the Archaea. Whereas the central metabolic routes of bacteria and eukaryotes are generally well-conserved, variant pathways have developed in Archaea involving several novel enzymes with a distinct control. A spectacular example of convergent evolution concerns the(More)
The hyperthermophilic and anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga maritima ferments a wide variety of carbohydrates, producing acetate, CO(2), and H(2). Glucose is degraded through a classical Embden-Meyerhof pathway, and both NADH and reduced ferredoxin are generated. The oxidation of these electron carriers must be coupled to H(2) production, but the mechanism by(More)
DNA microarrays were constructed by using 271 open reading frame (ORFs) from the genome of the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. They were used to investigate the effects of elemental sulfur (S(primary)) on the levels of gene expression in cells grown at 95 degrees C with maltose as the carbon source. The ORFs included those that are proposed to encode proteins(More)
The hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, was grown on maltose near its optimal growth temperature, 95 degrees C, and at the lower end of the temperature range for significant growth, 72 degrees C. In addition, cultures were shocked by rapidly dropping the temperature from 95 to 72 degrees C. This resulted in a 5-h lag phase, during which time(More)
Pyrococcus furiosus utilizes starch and its degradation products, such as maltose, as primary carbon sources, but the pathways by which these alpha-glucans are processed have yet to be defined. For example, its genome contains genes proposed to encode five amylolytic enzymes (including a cyclodextrin glucanotransferase [CGTase] and amylopullulanase), as(More)
Microorganisms can be engineered to produce useful products, including chemicals and fuels from sugars derived from renewable feedstocks, such as plant biomass. An alternative method is to use low potential reducing power from nonbiomass sources, such as hydrogen gas or electricity, to reduce carbon dioxide directly into products. This approach circumvents(More)
The original genome annotation of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus contained 2,065 open reading frames (ORFs). The genome was subsequently automatically annotated in two public databases by the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Remarkably, more than 500 of the originally(More)