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In attempts to develop a method of introducing DNA into Pyrococcus furiosus, we discovered a variant within the wild-type population that is naturally and efficiently competent for DNA uptake. A pyrF gene deletion mutant was constructed in the genome, and the combined transformation and recombination frequencies of this strain allowed marker replacement by(More)
The hyperthermophilic and anaerobic bacterium Thermotoga maritima ferments a wide variety of carbohydrates, producing acetate, CO(2), and H(2). Glucose is degraded through a classical Embden-Meyerhof pathway, and both NADH and reduced ferredoxin are generated. The oxidation of these electron carriers must be coupled to H(2) production, but the mechanism by(More)
The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus uses carbohydrates as a carbon source and produces acetate, CO2, and H2 as end products. When S(0) is added to a growing culture, within 10 min the rate of H2 production rapidly decreases and H(2)S is detected. After 1 hour cells contain high NADPH- and coenzyme A-dependent S(0) reduction activity (0.7(More)
Microorganisms can be engineered to produce useful products, including chemicals and fuels from sugars derived from renewable feedstocks, such as plant biomass. An alternative method is to use low potential reducing power from nonbiomass sources, such as hydrogen gas or electricity, to reduce carbon dioxide directly into products. This approach circumvents(More)
Pyrococcus furiosus utilizes starch and its degradation products, such as maltose, as primary carbon sources, but the pathways by which these alpha-glucans are processed have yet to be defined. For example, its genome contains genes proposed to encode five amylolytic enzymes (including a cyclodextrin glucanotransferase [CGTase] and amylopullulanase), as(More)
The [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze the formal interconversion between hydrogen and protons and electrons, possess characteristic non-protein ligands at their catalytic sites and thus share common mechanistic features. Despite the similarities between these two types of hydrogenases, they clearly have distinct evolutionary origins and likely(More)
The first complete-genome DNA microarray was constructed for a hyperthermophile or a nonhalophilic archaeon by using the 2,065 open reading frames (ORFs) that have been annotated in the genome of Pyrococcus furiosus (optimal growth temperature, 100 degrees C). This was used to determine relative transcript levels in cells grown at 95 degrees C with either(More)
DNA microarrays were constructed by using 271 open reading frame (ORFs) from the genome of the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. They were used to investigate the effects of elemental sulfur (S(primary)) on the levels of gene expression in cells grown at 95 degrees C with maltose as the carbon source. The ORFs included those that are proposed to encode proteins(More)
The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grows optimally at 100 degrees C by the fermentation of peptides and carbohydrates. Growth of the organism was examined in media containing either maltose, peptides (hydrolyzed casein), or both as the carbon source(s), each with and without elemental sulfur (S(0)). Growth rates were highest on media(More)
The original genome annotation of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus contained 2,065 open reading frames (ORFs). The genome was subsequently automatically annotated in two public databases by the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Remarkably, more than 500 of the originally(More)