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The temporal program of gene expression during a model physiological response of human cells, the response of fibroblasts to serum, was explored with a complementary DNA microarray representing about 8600 different human genes. Genes could be clustered into groups on the basis of their temporal patterns of expression in this program. Many features of the(More)
Mature dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to induce T cell immunity, whereas immature DCs induce T cell tolerance. Here we describe that injections of DCs matured with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (TNF/DCs) induce antigen-specific protection from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Maturation by TNF-alpha induced high levels of(More)
CD34+ cells in human cord blood and marrow are known to give rise to dendritic cells (DC), as well as to other myeloid lineages. CD34+ cells are rare in adult blood, however, making it difficult to use CD34+ cells to ascertain if DC progenitors are present in the circulation and if blood can be a starting point to obtain large numbers of these(More)
The functional properties of dendritic cells (DCs) are strictly dependent on their maturational state. To analyze the influence of the maturational state of DCs on priming and differentiation of T cells, immature CD83(-) and mature CD83(+) human DCs were used for stimulation of naive, allogeneic CD4(+) T cells. Repetitive stimulation with mature DCs(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be promising adjuvants for inducing immunity to cancer. We used mature, monocyte-derived DCs to elicit resistance to malignant melanoma. The DCs were pulsed with Mage-3A1 tumor peptide and a recall antigen, tetanus toxoid or tuberculin. 11 far advanced stage IV melanoma patients, who were progressive despite standard(More)
It has been known for years that rodents harbor a unique population of CD4(+)CD25(+) "professional" regulatory/suppressor T cells that is crucial for the prevention of spontaneous autoimmune diseases. Here we demonstrate that CD4(+)CD25(+)CD45RO(+) T cells (mean 6% of CD4(+) T cells) are present in the blood of adult healthy volunteers. In contrast to(More)
While it has been known that dendritic cells arise from proliferating precursors in situ, it has been difficult to identify progenitors in culture. We find that aggregates of growing dendritic cells develop in cultures of mouse blood that are supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) but not other CSFs. The dendritic cell(More)
CD83 is an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily member that is upregulated during the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). It has been widely used as a marker for mature DCs, but its function is still unknown. To approach its potential functional role, we have expressed the extracellular Ig domain of human CD83 (hCD83ext) as a soluble protein. Using this tool we(More)
T he Problem: Tumor Immunity Is Not Effectively Induced in Tumor-bearing Hosts. Animal experiments as well as clinical experience, notably in melanoma, indicate that the immune system can recognize and kill tumor cells. In particular , CTLs recognize MHC class I–peptide complexes on the tumor cell surface, and the peptides are derived from nonmutated or(More)
We previously reported a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identifying 14 susceptibility loci for generalized vitiligo. We report here a second GWAS (450 individuals with vitiligo (cases) and 3,182 controls), an independent replication study (1,440 cases and 1,316 controls) and a meta-analysis (3,187 cases and 6,723 controls) identifying 13 additional(More)