Gerold Schuler

Learn More
Dendritic cells (DCs) are currently divided into tolerogenic immature and immunogenic mature differentiation stages. However, recent findings challenge this model by reporting mature DCs as inducers of regulatory CD4+ T cells in vivo. This implies that decisive tolerogenic and immunogenic maturation signals for DCs might exist. Closer inspection reveals(More)
Mature dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to induce T cell immunity, whereas immature DCs induce T cell tolerance. Here we describe that injections of DCs matured with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (TNF/DCs) induce antigen-specific protection from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Maturation by TNF-alpha induced high levels of(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be promising adjuvants for inducing immunity to cancer. We used mature, monocyte-derived DCs to elicit resistance to malignant melanoma. The DCs were pulsed with Mage-3A1 tumor peptide and a recall antigen, tetanus toxoid or tuberculin. 11 far advanced stage IV melanoma patients, who were progressive despite standard(More)
The functional properties of dendritic cells (DCs) are strictly dependent on their maturational state. To analyze the influence of the maturational state of DCs on priming and differentiation of T cells, immature CD83(-) and mature CD83(+) human DCs were used for stimulation of naive, allogeneic CD4(+) T cells. Repetitive stimulation with mature DCs(More)
There is consensus that an optimized cancer vaccine will have to induce not only CD8+ cytotoxic but also CD4+ T helper (Th) cells, particularly interferon (IFN)-gamma-producing, type 1 Th cells. The induction of strong, ex vivo detectable type 1 Th cell responses has not been reported to date. We demonstrate now that the subcutaneous injection of(More)
Dendritic cells migrate from the skin to the draining lymph nodes. They transport immunogenic MHC-peptide complexes, present them to Ag-specific T cells in the T areas, and thus generate immunity. Migrating dendritic cells encounter physical obstacles, such as basement membranes and collagen meshwork. Prior work has revealed that matrix metalloproteinase-9(More)
It has been known for years that rodents harbor a unique population of CD4(+)CD25(+) "professional" regulatory/suppressor T cells that is crucial for the prevention of spontaneous autoimmune diseases. Here we demonstrate that CD4(+)CD25(+)CD45RO(+) T cells (mean 6% of CD4(+) T cells) are present in the blood of adult healthy volunteers. In contrast to(More)
A novel approach to vaccination against cancer is to exploit dendritic cells (DCs) as "nature's adjuvants" and actively immunize cancer patients with a sample of their own DCs primed with tumor antigens. DC vaccination is, however, still at an early stage, slowed in part by the need to carry out research in humans. Nevertheless, valuable proofs of concept(More)
Chemokines orchestrate immune cell trafficking by eliciting either directed or random migration and by activating integrins in order to induce cell adhesion. Analyzing dendritic cell (DC) migration, we showed that these distinct cellular responses depended on the mode of chemokine presentation within tissues. The surface-immobilized form of the chemokine(More)
Immunoglobulin-like transcripts (ILT) represent novel immunoglobulin superfamily receptors that are expressed in myeloid, lymphoid and dendritic cells (DC). Here, we studied by gene expression profiling with DNA microarrays ILT expression in different DC subsets, including plasmacytoid DC (PDC), monocyte-derived DC (Mo-DC) and DC obtained by in vitro(More)