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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
The temporal program of gene expression during a model physiological response of human cells, the response of fibroblasts to serum, was explored with a complementary DNA microarray representing about 8600 different human genes. Genes could be clustered into groups on the basis of their temporal patterns of expression in this program. Many features of the(More)
CD34+ cells in human cord blood and marrow are known to give rise to dendritic cells (DC), as well as to other myeloid lineages. CD34+ cells are rare in adult blood, however, making it difficult to use CD34+ cells to ascertain if DC progenitors are present in the circulation and if blood can be a starting point to obtain large numbers of these(More)
The human genome is by far the largest genome to be sequenced, and its size and complexity present many challenges for sequence assembly. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium constructed a map of the whole genome to enable the selection of clones for sequencing and for the accurate assembly of the genome sequence. Here we report the(More)
The functional properties of dendritic cells (DCs) are strictly dependent on their maturational state. To analyze the influence of the maturational state of DCs on priming and differentiation of T cells, immature CD83(-) and mature CD83(+) human DCs were used for stimulation of naive, allogeneic CD4(+) T cells. Repetitive stimulation with mature DCs(More)
Mature dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to induce T cell immunity, whereas immature DCs induce T cell tolerance. Here we describe that injections of DCs matured with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (TNF/DCs) induce antigen-specific protection from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Maturation by TNF-alpha induced high levels of(More)
We have placed 7,600 cytogenetically defined landmarks on the draft sequence of the human genome to help with the characterization of genes altered by gross chromosomal aberrations that cause human disease. The landmarks are large-insert clones mapped to chromosome bands by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Each clone contains a sequence tag that is(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be promising adjuvants for inducing immunity to cancer. We used mature, monocyte-derived DCs to elicit resistance to malignant melanoma. The DCs were pulsed with Mage-3A1 tumor peptide and a recall antigen, tetanus toxoid or tuberculin. 11 far advanced stage IV melanoma patients, who were progressive despite standard(More)
It has been known for years that rodents harbor a unique population of CD4(+)CD25(+) "professional" regulatory/suppressor T cells that is crucial for the prevention of spontaneous autoimmune diseases. Here we demonstrate that CD4(+)CD25(+)CD45RO(+) T cells (mean 6% of CD4(+) T cells) are present in the blood of adult healthy volunteers. In contrast to(More)
CD83 is an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily member that is upregulated during the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). It has been widely used as a marker for mature DCs, but its function is still unknown. To approach its potential functional role, we have expressed the extracellular Ig domain of human CD83 (hCD83ext) as a soluble protein. Using this tool we(More)