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Cytokeratins are released from carcinoma cells by unclear mechanisms and are commonly used serum tumor markers (TPA, TPS, and CYFRA 21-1). We here report that soluble cytokeratin-18 (CK18) is released from human carcinoma cells during cell death. During necrosis, the cytosolic pool of soluble CK18 was released, whereas apoptosis was associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Sunitinib and sorafenib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors that have important antitumor activity in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Hypothyroidism constitutes a commonly reported side effect of both drugs, and particularly of sunitinib. The objective of this analysis was to investigate whether the occurrence of hypothyroidism during(More)
CONTEXT Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in the adult male, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents the most frequent urologic diagnosis in elderly males. Recent data suggest that prostatic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of both conditions. OBJECTIVE This review aims to evaluate the available evidence(More)
This study for the first time elaborates on cells of the immune system present in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Compared with normal prostate, all BPH-derived specimens revealed a marked increase of CD45+ leukocytes, characterization of which demonstrated three major cell types, i.e., CD3+ T lymphocytes, CD11c+ macrophages and CD20+ B lymphocytes.(More)
Caspase-cleaved proteins are released from disintegrated apoptotic cells and can be detected in the circulation. We here addressed whether caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 (CK18-Asp396) can be used as a serum biomarker for assessment of the clinical efficiency of chemotherapy in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). A total of 82 patients with HRPC were(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated the relation between the presence and degree of stone induced hydronephrosis and the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in patients with solitary proximal ureteral stones. METHODS 130 patients with or without hydronephrosis were treated with SWL. The degree of hydronephrosis was defined by renal ultrasound.(More)
Various cytokine combinations have been tested for efficacy in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC). Because several immunologic synergisms between granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating-factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been demonstrated, this phase II trial was conducted on the efficacy and toxicity of subcutaneous,(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate treatment protocols and results of upper tract stone treatment in patients with clotting disorders. METHODS In a 6-year period, 6,827 stone interventions (ESWL or endourologic procedures) were performed in 5,739 patients. Thirty-five (0.61%) patients suffered from a variety of systemic clotting(More)
OBJECTIVES Chronic inflammation has been documented for years in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but only now has it become evident as a major factor in disease progression. This review highlights the immunologic key features of chronic inflammation in BPH and the present interpretation of these changes in the development and progression of BPH. (More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess whether low serum testosterone levels in men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer have an association to the endocrine status, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, Gleason score, and androgen receptor expression. METHODS Besides a full clinical work-up, the following hormones were quantified in men with(More)