Gernoth Grunst

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The paper describes the concept of the Responsive Workbench (RW). This virtual environment was designed to support end users working on desks, workbenches, and tables as physicians, architects and scientists with an adequate human-machine interface. We attempt to construct a task-driven interface for this class of users by working in an interdisciplinary(More)
Intra-operative ultrasound (iUS) can generate 2D images in real-time as well as near real-time 3D datasets of the current situation during an intervention. Tracked ultrasound can locate the images in 3D space and relate them to patient, devices, andpre-operative planning data. Therefore, tracked US is an efficient means for controlling the validity of(More)
Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography is a user-dependent technique that poses some inherent problems to the beginner. The first problem for beginners is spatial orientation, especially the orientation of the scan plane in reference to the 3-dimensional (3D) geometry of the heart. The second problem for beginners is steering of the ultrasound probe. We have(More)
Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) requires extensive hands-on training, and it is for this purpose we have designed EchoComTEE, a simulator for TOE. It consists of a manikin and dummy probe; according to the position of the dummy probe (tracked by an electromagnetic sensor), two-dimensional (2D) images are calculated from three-dimensional (3D) data(More)
In two-dimensional echocardiography the sonographer must synthesize multiple tomographic slices into a mental three-dimensional (3D) model of the heart. Computer graphics and virtual reality environments are ideal to visualize complex 3D spatial relationships. In augmented reality (AR) applications, real and virtual image data are linked, to increase the(More)
Computer simulators play an important role in medical education. We have extended our simulator EchoComJ with an intelligent training system (ITS) to support trainees adjusting echocardiographic standard views. EchoComJ is an augmented reality application that combines real three-dimensional ultrasound data with a virtual heart model enabling one to(More)
We have developed a training and support system for echocardiography based on a 3D visualization of a virtual beating heart and the blood flow. The user can interact with the system by positioning a tracker-equipped transducer. The user is able to acquire mental images of the dynamic anatomy of the heart, a mental model for the interpretation of ultrasonic(More)
One of the major problems in neurosurgery is to find an optimal access route towards the area of interest, e.g., a lesion to be treated chirurgically. The quality of a route depends on the type of pathology to treat, its location, the functional areas surrounding it and many other aspects. The overall goal of route optimization is of course, to treat the(More)