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Conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in genital tissue is catalysed by the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase 2, which is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The potent androgen DHT is required for full masculinization of the external genitalia. Mutations of the SRD5A2 gene inhibit enzyme activity, diminish DHT formation, and hence cause(More)
Abnormal human spermatogenesis is caused by a variety of genetic and acquired conditions. Because spermatogenesis is dependent on androgens, some males may have a minimal form of androgen insensitivity that does not inhibit virilization but impairs fertility. This has lead us to investigate the possibility of abnormalities in the androgen receptor (AR) gene(More)
Recent studies indicate that mutations in the androgen receptor gene are associated with androgen insensitivity syndromes, a heterogeneous group of related disorders involving defective sexual differentiation in karyotypic males. In this report, we address the possibility of rapid mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene for initial diagnosis,(More)
Premature stop codons of the human androgen receptor (AR) gene are usually associated with a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. We, however, identified an adult patient with a 46,XY karyotype carrying a premature stop codon in exon 1 of the AR gene presenting with signs of partial virilization: pubic hair Tanner stage 4 and clitoral enlargement. No(More)
UNLABELLED The medical management of differences of sex development (DSD)/intersex in early childhood has been criticized by patients' advocates as well as bioethicists from an ethical point of view. Some call for a moratorium of any feminizing or masculinizing operations before the age of consent except for medical emergencies. No exhaustive ethical(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess somatic and inherited androgen receptor gene mutations in families with only one affected individual. METHODS Molecular genetic analysis of the androgen receptor gene in DNA derived from blood leukocytes from 30 families with single-strand conformation analysis, direct sequencing, and restriction(More)
Androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS) are due to end-organ resistance to androgenic steroids in males leading to defective virilization of the external genitalia. The phenotype encompasses a wide array of genital ambiguity and may range from completely female to undervirilized but unequivocally male with infertility. This disorder is caused by mutations of(More)
Certain germline mutations (607Arg-Gln, 608Arg-Lys) in the androgen receptor gene have been associated with the occurrence of breast cancer in males suffering from partial androgen insensitivity. To assess whether somatic mutations in this gene could be detected in breast carcinoma, archival tumor tissue of males without clinical evidence of androgen(More)
Development of male external genitalia is dependent on androgens, and karyotypic males lacking appropriate levels of androgens or functionally normal receptors may show abnormal virilization. Mutations in the androgen receptor gene cause abnormal receptor function and diverser mutations may be associated with heterogenous clinical signs of androgen(More)
We recently found that postzygotic de novo mutations occur at the expected high rate of an X-linked recessive mutation in androgen insensitivity syndrome. The resulting somatic mosaicism can be an important molecular determinant of in vivo androgen action caused by expression of the wild-type androgen receptor (AR). However, the clinical relevance of this(More)