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We investigated primary motor cortex and brain stem plasticity in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The study group comprised 12 patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and 24 healthy subjects. Patients were clinically evaluated using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. We tested cortical plasticity by conditioning left primary motor cortex(More)
The histories of seven patients over the age of 60 years are reported. They all suffered from recurrent and prolonged episodes of confusional state associated with psychic and neurologic manifestations. All episodes were accompanied by the occurrence of periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) on the EEG, which became normal when the ictal(More)
Pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) in response to 8.3 Hz alternating gratings (16.6 rev/sec) of different spatial frequencies were recorded in normal subjects as well as in patients affected by early glaucoma and ocular hypertension. In normal subjects the PERG response is spatially tuned, with a maximum at about 1.5 cycles/deg and attenuation at higher and(More)
Recent experimental evidence has suggested that peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) may play a role in epilepsy and antiepileptic drug action. Since PBR are also present in circulating lymphocytes, and may interact with anticonvulsant drugs, this study was designed to look for possible modifications of these receptors and their endogenous ligand(More)
It is currently assumed that steady-state pattern electroretinograms can be obtained only at high rates of pattern reversal. However, steady-state responses can also be obtained at very low temporal frequencies (less than 1 Hz), provided that the reversal is sinusoidal. In five healthy volunteers, we studied the frequency characteristics of the(More)
The photopic, focal electroretinogram elicited by sinusoidal modulation (8 Hz) of the luminance of a uniform field (flicker electroretinogram) presented in the macular region contains two main components: the first harmonic at the stimulus frequency (1F) and the second harmonic at twice the stimulus frequency (2F). Physiologic and clinical studies have(More)
The term Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus infections (PANDAS) was coined by Swedo et al. in 1998 to describe a subset of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) and tic disorders triggered by group-A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes infection. Like adult OCD, PANDAS is associated with basal ganglia(More)
OBJECTIVE To detect early losses of contrast sensitivity (CS) in patients with pituitary adenomas, before the occurrence of visual acuity and visual field defects. METHODS CS has been evaluated in both hemifields of 28 patients with different kinds of pituitary adenoma (mainly intrasellar) and normal visual acuity and visual field, as well as in 15(More)
76 cases of cluster headache are reviewed. Besides confirming established notions, the present study calls attention to the following points: (a) the peculiar behaviour of patients during the attacks does not appear explainable in simple terms of reaction to pain; (b) the occurrence of ECG abnormalities during the attacks in addition to bradycardia; (c) the(More)