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Chloride (Cl(-)) is an essential nutrient and one of the most abundant inorganic anions in plant tissues. We have cloned an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA encoding for a member of the cation-Cl(-) cotransporter (CCC) family. Deduced plant CCC proteins are highly conserved, and phylogenetic analyses revealed their relationships to the sub-family of animal(More)
Viroids are small self-replicating RNAs that infect plants. How these noncoding pathogenic RNAs interact with hosts to induce disease symptoms is a long-standing unanswered question. Recent experimental data have led to the suggestive proposal of a pathogenic model based on the RNA silencing mechanism. However, evidence of a direct relation between key(More)
Small RNA (sRNA)-guided processes, referred to as RNA silencing, regulate endogenous and exogenous gene expression. In plants and some animals, these processes are noncell autonomous and can operate beyond the site of initiation. Viroids, the smallest self-replicating plant pathogens known, are inducers, targets and evaders of this regulatory mechanism and,(More)
Of all known plant pathogens, viroids have the lowest biological complexity. Their genome consists of a naked RNA without protein-encoding capacity. However, viroids contain sufficient genetic information to establish infection in susceptible hosts. The process by which this tiny RNA subverts the plant cell machinery by coercing the host to express symptoms(More)
Micro RNAS (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In plants, a great number of conserved and specific miRNAs, mainly arising from model species, have been identified to date. However less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in vegetal species with(More)
In plants, the developmental relaxation of transposable element silencing (DRTS) occurs at distinct spatial and temporal points in the normal development of a wild-type individual. Several examples of DRTS have now been described, including in maize shoot apical meristems, and in Arabidopsis meiocytes, endosperm and nurse cells of gametophytes. In this(More)
Viroids are plant-pathogenic non-coding RNAs able to interfere with as yet poorly known host-regulatory pathways and to cause alterations recognized as diseases. The way in which these RNAs coerce the host to express symptoms remains to be totally deciphered. In recent years, diverse studies have proposed a close interplay between viroid-induced(More)
Plant small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) communicate from cell to cell and travel long distances through the vasculature. However, siRNA movement into germ cells has remained controversial, and has gained interest because the terminally differentiated pollen vegetative nurse cell surrounding the sperm cells undergoes a programmed heterochromatin decondensation(More)
A large body of evidence has lead to the suggestive proposal of a potential interplay between viroid-induced pathogenesis and RNA silencing regulatory mechanisms. A variety of techniques have been used to examine this interaction. This chapter outlines the use of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) sensor, containing viroid-specific sequence targets to study(More)