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Number size distributions of atmospheric aerosol particles in the mobility diameter range from 10 to 1000 nm were determined in Budapest, Prague and Vienna for a one-year-long period. Particle number concentrations in various size fractions, their diurnal and seasonal variations, mean size distributions and some properties of new particle formation events(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement is highly variable among molluscs and especially among bivalves. Of the 30 complete molluscan mt-genomes published to date, only one is of a heterodont bivalve, although this is the most diverse taxon in terms of species numbers. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of Acanthocardia(More)
Regulatory gene expression during the patterning of molluscan shells has only recently drawn the attention of scientists. We show that several Hox genes are expressed in association with the shell gland and the mantle in the marine vetigastropod Gibbula varia (L.). The expression of Gva-Hox1, Gva-Post2, and Gva-Post1 is initially detected in the trochophore(More)
Opsins have been found in the majority of animals and their most apparent functions are related to vision and light-guided behaviour. As an increasing number of sequences have become available it has become clear that many opsin-like transcripts are expressed in tissues other than the eyes. Opsins can be divided into three main groups: rhabdomeric opsins(More)
BACKGROUND Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the(More)
Generation, investigation, and manipulation of nanostructured materials are of fundamental and practical importance for several disciplines, including materials science and medicine. Recently, atmospheric new particle formation in the nanometer-size range has been found to be a global phenomenon. Still, its detailed mechanisms are mostly unknown, largely(More)
Hox transcription factors, a subfamily of homeobox genes, are expressed in distinct, often overlapping domains along the anterior-posterior body axis of animal embryos. Here, we report the sequence and expression pattern of Hox2, Hox3, Hox4, Hox5, Lox5, Hox7, Lox4, and Lox2 in different larval stages during the encapsulated development of the marine(More)
Chitin is an insoluble component in the shells of several molluscan species. It is thought to play important roles, in biomineralization and shell structure. To date, however, reports are scarce and sometimes contradictory, and suffer from methodological problems. Only in a single cephalopod species has the chitin been identified as beta-chitin. We present(More)
Molecular characteristics, especially 18S rDNA sequences, may be of great value for the study of bivalve evolution and its numerous morphological convergencies once the reliability of these data can be evaluated. The analysis of 11 published complete molluscan sequences and two new ones, Arca noae and Atrina pectinata, reveals considerable differences in(More)
For atmospheric sulfuric acid (SA) concentrations the presence of dimethylamine (DMA) at mixing ratios of several parts per trillion by volume can explain observed boundary layer new particle formation rates. However, the concentration and molecular composition of the neutral (uncharged) clusters have not been reported so far due to the lack of suitable(More)