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This article describes abductions as special patterns of inference to the best explanation whose structure determines a particularly promising abductive conjecture (conclusion) and thus serves as an abductive search strategy (Sect. 1). A classification of different patterns of abduction is provided which intends to be as complete as possible (Sect. 2). An(More)
Hume’s famous is-ought thesis (cf. Hume, 1739/40, p. 469) saying that nothing about what ought (or ought not) to be the case can be deduced from what is (or is not) the case, was the object of a continuing philosophical debate, without leading to agreement (cf. Hudson, 1969). Since in the last decades exact systems of modal alethic and deontic logic have(More)
Normic laws have the form "if A, then normally B". They are omnipresent in everyday life and non-physical 'life' sciences such as biology, psychology, social sciences and humanities. They differ significantly from idealized ceteris-paribus laws in physics. While several authors have doubted that normic laws are genuine laws at all, others have argued that(More)
In the first part I argue that normic laws are the phenomenological laws of evolutionary systems. If this is true, then intuitive human reasoning should be fit in reasoning from normic laws. In the second part I show that system P is a tool for reasoning with normic laws which satisfies two important evolutionary standards: it is probabilistically reliable,(More)