Gerhard J Herndl

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The evolution of marine microbes over billions of years predicts that the composition of microbial communities should be much greater than the published estimates of a few thousand distinct kinds of microbes per liter of seawater. By adopting a massively parallel tag sequencing strategy, we show that bacterial communities of deep water masses of the North(More)
Marine Crenarchaeota are the most abundant single group of prokaryotes in the ocean, but their physiology and role in marine biogeochemical cycles are unknown. Recently, a member of this clade was isolated from a sea aquarium and shown to be capable of nitrification, tentatively suggesting that Crenarchaeota may play a role in the oceanic nitrogen cycle. We(More)
Aerobic nitrification of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate is a key process in the oceanic nitrogen cycling mediated by prokaryotes. Apart from Bacteria belonging to the beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria involved in the first nitrification step, Crenarchaeota have recently been recognized as main drivers of the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite in soil as well as(More)
Recent studies suggest that unidentified prokaryotes fix inorganic carbon at globally significant rates in the immense dark ocean. Using single-cell sorting and whole-genome amplification of prokaryotes from two subtropical gyres, we obtained genomic DNA from 738 cells representing most cosmopolitan lineages. Multiple cells of Deltaproteobacteria cluster(More)
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in combination with polynucleotide probes revealed that the two major groups of planktonic Archaea (Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota) exhibit a different distribution pattern in the water column of the Pacific subtropical gyre and in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current system. While Euryarchaeota were found to be more(More)
The recently developed CARD-FISH protocol was refined for the detection of marine Archaea by replacing the lysozyme permeabilization treatment with proteinase K. This modification resulted in about twofold-higher detection rates for Archaea in deep waters. Using this method in combination with microautoradiography, we found that Archaea are more abundant(More)
Bacterial populations inhabiting the sea surface microlayer from two contrasted Mediterranean coastal stations (polluted vs. oligotrophic) were examined by culturing and genetic fingerprinting methods and were compared with those of underlying waters (50 cm depth), for a period of two years. More than 30 samples were examined and 487 strains were isolated(More)
Bacterial assemblages from subsurface (100 m depth), meso- (200-1000 m depth) and bathy-pelagic (below 1000 m depth) zones at 10 stations along a North Atlantic Ocean transect from 60°N to 5°S were characterized using massively parallel pyrotag sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene (V6 pyrotags). In a dataset of more than 830,000 pyrotags, we(More)
The potential of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and the detection of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) to characterize marine bacterioplankton communities was compared with that of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A protocol has been developed to optimize the separation and(More)
The interspecific variability in the sensitivity of marine bacterial isolates to UV-B (295- to 320-nm) radiation and their ability to recover from previous UV-B stress were examined. Isolates originating from different microenvironments of the northern Adriatic Sea were transferred to aged seawater and exposed to artificial UV-B radiation for 4 h and(More)