Gerhard Gramss

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An alkaline humic extract (HE) of a black calcareous forest mull was exposed to 36 fungal and 9 eubacterial isolates in liquid standing culture. At 21 d in fungi, and 4 d in bacteria, the groups of wood-degrading basidiomycetes, terricolous basidiomycetes, ectomycorrhizal fungi, soil-borne microfungi, and eubacteria had reduced the absorbance (A 340) of HE(More)
Seven commercial 3- to 7-ring (R) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as well as PAH derived from lignite tar were spiked into 3 soils (0.8 to 9.7% of organic carbon). The disappearance of the original PAH was determined for the freshly spiked soils, for soils incubated for up to 287 d with their indigenous microflora, and for autoclaved, unsterile and(More)
Fairy rings of M. oreades on pasture land were denoted by the dark-green vegetation. Grasses and rooted soils were analyzed to determine the influence of nonsymbiotic fungal mats on plant uptake of (heavy) metals. In soil colonized by M. oreades, degradation of 20-35% of plant roots in the presence of fungal laccase increased the content of dissolved(More)
Metalliferous uranium mine overburden soils integrated into arable land or stabilized by perennial rangeland plants evoke concern about the quality of crops and the exposure of grazing and thereby soil-ingesting (wildlife) herbivores to heavy metals (HM) and radionuclides. In a 2-year trial, thirteen annual and perennial forage and rangeland plants were(More)
Along a gradient of diminishing heavy metal (HM) concentrations formed by local inclusions of uranium mine soils into non-contaminated cropland, duplicate 1-m2 plots of 3 winter wheat cvs. (Akteur E, Brilliant A, and Bussard E) were established at 3 positions within a winter rye (cv. Visello) culture. It was the goal to determine permissible soil HM(More)
Unsterile soil samples pH 6.8 were amended with 10% sucrose or 0.1% NH4NO3/2% casein to influence solubility of metal cations. Microbial formation of aliphatic carboxylic acids reduced pH of sucrose soil to 4.3 and increased the solubility of heavy metals by 60-fold due to the increased presence of H+, and the metal-chelating and humic-molecule fragmenting(More)
Non-symbiotic microorganisms engineered or expensively selected to degrade xenobiotic hydrocarbons or modify heavy-metal uptake of plants in soil remediations die back after their introduction into the target soils. Mycelia of saprobic basidiomycetes were therefore inoculated into soil samples of 1 l in glass vessels to record mycelial growth and(More)
Formation of soil mycelium enables the fungal mycelium to amend the nutrient-deficient wood substrate actively by enclosing macronutrients from soil. Supposition to formation of a soil mycelium proved the resistance of the fungus to competitive substrate microorganisms. This resistance is absent in pathogenic, but wide-spread in saprophytic wood-decay(More)
Non-symbiotic soil microorganisms which have been expensively engineered or selected to support plant nutrition, control root diseases, degrade xenobiotic hydrocarbons, and repress or stimulate heavy metal uptake of plants fail to survive in target soils. This prompted studies into the role of chemistry and microbial pre-colonization of 23 top soils in(More)
Several fungal species are notorious for the preferential acquisition of toxicants such as AsCdHgPbU in their wild-grown basidiomes, but it is not known how, or whether at all, mineral uptake is regulated. In this study, basidiomes of Kuehneromyces mutabilis, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Hypholoma fasciculare were grown on Fagus sylvatica logs embedded in sand,(More)