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A fundamental objective of human ^ computer interaction research is to make systems more usable, more useful, and to provide users with experiences ¢tting their speci¢c background knowledge and objectives. The challenge in an information-rich world is not only to make information available to people at any time, at any place, and in any form, but(More)
Gerhard Fischer is a computer scientist in teresled in design and design suppon S\"Stems, particularly in domain-oriented design environmenlS and how they make :irgumemation serve design by supporting reflection-inaction ; he is the direcwr of the Center for Lifelong Learning and Design, a professor of Computer Science, and a member of the lnstiwte of(More)
The field of knowledge-based software engineering has been undergoing a shift in emphasis from automatic programming to human augmentation and empowerment. In our research work, we support this shift with an approach that embedshuman-computer cooperative problem-solving tools intodomain-oriented, knowledge-based design environments. Domain orientation(More)
Complex design problems require more knowledge than any single person possesses because the knowledge relevant to a problem is usually distributed among stakeholders. Bringing different and often controversial points of view together to create a shared understanding among these stakeholders can lead to new insights, new ideas, and new artifacts. New media(More)
Design is a ubiquitous activity. The complexity of design problems requires communities rather than individuals to address, frame, and solve them. These design communities have to cope with the following barriers: (1) <i>spatial</i> (across distance), (2) <i>temporal</i> (across time), (3) <i>conceptual</i> (across different communities of practice, and (4)(More)
The first decade of the World Wide Web predominantly enforced a clear separation between designers and consumers. New technological developments, such as the cyberinfrastructure and Web 2.0 architectures, have emerged to support a participatory Web and social computing. These developments are the foundations for a fundamental shift from consumer cultures(More)
End-user development (EUD) activities range from customization to component configuration and programming. Office software, such as the ubiquitous spreadsheet, provides customization facilities, while the growth of the Web has added impetus to end-user scripting for interactive functions in Web sites. In scientific and engineering domains, end users(More)