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BACKGROUND An intense debate is ongoing regarding options for fertility protection in oncological patients. Germ cell transplantation has been applied to restore mouse spermatogenesis. Here, an attempt to apply autologous germ cell transplantation to a primate animal model is described. METHODS Five adult male cynomolgus monkeys were biopsied to retrieve(More)
The DAZ gene cluster on the human Y chromosome is a candidate for the Azoospermia Factor (AZFc). According to the current evolutionary model, the DAZ cluster derived from the autosomal homolog DAZL1 through duplications and rearrangements and is confined to Old World monkeys, apes and humans. To study functional and evolutionary aspects of this gene family(More)
During spermiogenesis, histones are replaced by transition proteins, which in turn are replaced by protamines. The TNP1 gene-encoding TP1 (transition protein 1) protein contains a cAMP-responsive element (CRE) that serves as binding site for the CRE modulator (CREM). To gain further insight into the complex regulation of nucleoprotein exchanges in haploid(More)
Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process that occurs in several phases. A large number of genes have been identified that are expressed during spermatogenesis, but the biological significance of many of these is not yet known. We have used gene targeting to selectively eliminate the transcription factor CREM (cyclic AMP- responsive element(More)
Hormonal male contraception requires an induction phase before azoospermia and contraceptive safety are achieved. The nature of spermatozoa that may be ejaculated during this induction phase was studied in a nonhuman primate. The GnRH antagonist Cetrorelix was administered daily to five cynomolgus monkeys to induce testicular regression, and the vehicle was(More)
Adult rats were treated with ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS), an agent that destroys Leydig cells. Within 5 days after EDS treatment, the levels of testosterone (T) in the circulation and in the testis were decreased to very low values, which makes it possible to manipulate the testicular T concentration through administration of exogenous T.(More)
cAMP responsive element modulator (CREM) activators are specifically expressed in haploid germ cells prior to cell elongation and are essential for spermatid development in mice. Recent studies indicate that CREM activators are also involved in the process of spermatid maturation in men. Unlike the activators, CREM repressors were suggested to be absent(More)
We have investigated the antigonadotropic and antispermatogenic effects of exposure to a long-acting testosterone ester in the cynomolgus monkey model. Groups of five adult animals were exposed either to vehicle or to 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg testosterone buciclate (TB) over a 26-week period with injections given in weeks 0, 11 and 18. In week 26, testicular(More)
The Y-chromosomal DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) gene and the autosomal Dazl (deleted in azoospermia-like) gene are two crucial factors for the achievement and maintenance of spermatogenesis. Whereas Y-chromosomal DAZ is present in certain primates, it is lacking in rodents and other species. We have investigated the expression of Dazl protein during(More)
Several studies have reported the occurrence and significance of programmed cell death (apoptosis) of testicular germ cells in mammals. In those studies, apoptotic germ cells were identified by morphological criteria or by in situ end labeling (TUNEL) and were enumerated from histological sections by semi-quantitative and time-consuming techniques. In the(More)