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The activity of calpain is controlled by the free intracellular calcium level and by the protein's intrinsically disordered endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, mediated by short conserved segments: subdomains A-C. The exact binding mode of calpastatin to the enzyme has until now been unclear. Our NMR data of the 141 amino acid long inhibitor, with and(More)
Phosphorylation adjacent to nuclear localization signals (NLSs) is involved in the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport. The nuclear isoform of human dUTPase, an enzyme that is essential for genomic integrity, has been shown to be phosphorylated on a serine residue (Ser11) in the vicinity of its nuclear localization signal; however, the effect of this(More)
Base-excision repair and control of nucleotide pools safe-guard against permanent uracil accumulation in DNA relying on two key enzymes: uracil-DNA glycosylase and dUTPase. Lack of the major uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG gene from the fruit fly genome and dUTPase from fruit fly larvae prompted the hypotheses that i) uracil may accumulate in Drosophila genomic(More)
Proteins are translated in the cytoplasm, but many need to access the nucleus to perform their functions. Understanding how these nuclear proteins are transported through the nuclear envelope and how the import processes are regulated is therefore an important aspect of understanding cell function. Structural biology has played a key role in understanding(More)
BACKGROUND Calpain proteases drive intracellular signal transduction via specific proteolysis of multiple substrates upon Ca(2+)-induced activation. Recently, dUTPase, an enzyme essential to maintain genomic integrity, was identified as a physiological calpain substrate in Drosophila cells. Here we investigate the potential structural/functional(More)
Phosphorylation by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) adjacent to nuclear localization signals (NLSs) is an important mechanism of regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport. However, no systematic survey has yet been performed in human cells to analyze this regulatory process, and the corresponding cell-cycle dynamics have not yet been investigated. Here,(More)
Transfer of phage-related pathogenicity islands of Staphylococcus aureus (SaPI-s) was recently reported to be activated by helper phage dUTPases. This is a novel function for dUTPases otherwise involved in preservation of genomic integrity by sanitizing the dNTP pool. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism of the dUTPase-induced gene expression(More)
Staphylococcus aureus superantigen-carrying pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) play a determinant role in spreading virulence genes among bacterial populations that constitute a major health hazard. Repressor (Stl) proteins are responsible for the transcriptional regulation of pathogenicity island genes. Recently, a derepressing interaction between the repressor(More)
Genome integrity requires well controlled cellular pools of nucleotides. dUTPases are responsible for regulating cellular dUTP levels and providing dUMP for dTTP biosynthesis. In Staphylococcus, phage dUTPases are also suggested to be involved in a moonlighting function regulating the expression of pathogenicity-island genes. Staphylococcal phage trimeric(More)
The role of uracil in genomic DNA has been recently re-evaluated. It is now widely accepted to be a physiologically important DNA element in diverse systems from specific phages to antibody maturation and Drosophila development. Further relevant investigations would largely benefit from a novel reliable and fast method to gain quantitative and qualitative(More)