Geremy W. Knapp

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Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with the development of benign and malignant human skin lesions including nonmelanoma skin cancers. The precise arsenical form(s) responsible for this carcinogenic effect are unknown, although trivalent inorganic arsenic (iAs(III)) and two of its toxic metabolites, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III))(More)
BACKGROUND Potassium bromate (KBrO3), used in both the food and cosmetics industry, and a drinking water disinfection by-product, is a nephrotoxic compound and rodent carcinogen. To gain insight into the carcinogenic mechanism of action and provide possible biomarkers of KBrO3 exposure, the gene expression in kidneys from chronically exposed male F344 rats(More)
Chronic drinking water exposure to inorganic arsenic and its metabolites increases tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, we characterized gene expression profiles from analysis of K6/ODC mice administered 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1.0 and 10 ppm sodium arsenite in their(More)
K-Ras mutant fraction (MF) was measured to examine the default assumption of low-dose linearity in the benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) mutational response. Groups of 10 male A/J mice (7- to 9-weeks old) received a single i.p. injection of 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50 mg/kg B[a]P and were sacrificed 28 days after treatment. K-Ras codon 12 TGT and GAT MFs in lung DNAs were(More)
Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In F344 rats, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA[V]) increases transitional cell carcinoma. Arsenic-induced inhibition of DNA repair has been reported in cultured cell lines and in lymphocytes of arsenic-exposed humans, but it has not been studied in urinary bladder. Should inhibition(More)
The skin is an organ that is highly sensitive to chronic arsenic (As) exposure. Skin lesions such as hyperkeratoses (HKs) are common early manifestations of arsenicosis in humans. HKs can be precursor lesions of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), but the driving forces behind their formation and how they may ultimately progress to NMSCs are unknown. The goal(More)
Exposure of male C3H mice in utero (from gestational days 8-18) to 85ppm sodium arsenite via the dams' drinking water has previously been shown to increase liver tumor incidence by 2 years of age. However, in our companion study (Ahlborn et al., 2009), continuous exposure to 85ppm sodium arsenic (from gestational day 8 to postnatal day 365) did not result(More)
Etoposide is among the most widely used anti-cancer drugs. Its use, however, has been associated with increased risk of secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) which is characterized by chromosomal translocations suggesting involvement of recombination-associated motifs at the breakpoints. A PCR-based assay was developed to quantitate the frequency of two(More)
During embryogenesis the liver is derived from endodermal cells lining the digestive tract. These endodermal progenitor cells contribute to forming the parenchyma of a number of organs including the liver and pancreas. Early in organogenesis the fetal liver is populated by hematopoietic stem cells, the source for a number of blood cells including nucleated(More)
We used a direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for quantification of HPRT exons 2 + 3 deletions and t(14;18) translocations as a measure of illegitimate V(D)J recombination. We determined the baseline frequencies of these two mutations in mononuclear leukocyte DNA from the umbilical cord blood of newborns and from the peripheral blood of adults. In(More)