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Development and patterning of neural tissue in the vertebrate embryo involves a set of molecules and processes whose relationships are not fully understood. Classical embryology revealed a remarkable phenomenon known as vertical signalling, a gastrulation stage mechanism that copies anterior-posterior positional information from mesoderm to prospective(More)
Autophagy is a well-conserved catabolic process constitutively active in eukaryotes that is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis by the targeting of cytoplasmic content and organelles to vacuoles. Autophagy is strongly induced by the limitation of nutrients including carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and is clearly associated with cell death. It has been(More)
Genes of the KN1-like homeobox (KNOX) class 1 encode transcription factors involved in shoot apical meristem development and maintenance. We studied the subcellular localization of Green Fluorescent Protein-tagged rice KNOX proteins (Oskn1-3) after particle bombardment of onion and rice cells and after transformation of Arabidopsis and rice with(More)
Inhibition of VEGF signalling effectively suppresses localized tumour growth but accelerates tumour invasiveness and micrometastasis by unknown mechanisms. To study the dynamic and reciprocal interactions between tumour cells and their microenvironment during these processes, we established a xenograft model by injecting tumour cells into the blood(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the formation of bacterial biofilms on the surface of the electrode array of cochlear implants (CI) explanted because of device failure, without evidence of infection, by use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. SETTING Patients from 2 tertiary-care(More)
The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici causes foot and root rot of tomato plants, which can be controlled by the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 and P. chlororaphis PCL1391. Induced systemic resistance is thought to be involved in biocontrol by P. fluorescens WCS365. The antifungal metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), as well(More)
BACKGROUND Photosynthetic organisms have developed multiple protective mechanisms to prevent photodamage in vivo under high-light conditions. Cyanobacteria and red algae use phycobilisomes (PBsomes) as their major light-harvesting antennae complexes. The orange carotenoid protein in some cyanobacteria has been demonstrated to play roles in the(More)
High-resolution imaging of autophagy has been used intensively in cell culture studies, but so far it has been difficult to visualize this process in detail in whole animal models. In this study we present a versatile method for high-resolution imaging of microbial infection in zebrafish larvae by injecting pathogens into the tail fin. This allows(More)
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.radicis-licopersici (Forl) is a soilborne pathogenic fungus which can cause tomato foot and root rot (TFRR). Tomato root exudate is a good source of nutrients for both Forl and the TFRR-suppressing biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WCS365. Incubation of Forl microconidia in tomato root exudate stimulates their(More)
According to the Shifting Defense Hypothesis, invasive plants should trade-off their costly quantitative defense to cheaper qualitative defense and growth due to the lack of natural specialist enemies and the presence of generalist enemies in the introduced areas. Several studies showed that plant genotypes from the invasive areas had a better qualitative(More)