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Development and patterning of neural tissue in the vertebrate embryo involves a set of molecules and processes whose relationships are not fully understood. Classical embryology revealed a remarkable phenomenon known as vertical signalling, a gastrulation stage mechanism that copies anterior-posterior positional information from mesoderm to prospective(More)
Autophagy is a well-conserved catabolic process constitutively active in eukaryotes that is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis by the targeting of cytoplasmic content and organelles to vacuoles. Autophagy is strongly induced by the limitation of nutrients including carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and is clearly associated with cell death. It has been(More)
Genes of the KN1-like homeobox (KNOX) class 1 encode transcription factors involved in shoot apical meristem development and maintenance. We studied the subcellular localization of Green Fluorescent Protein-tagged rice KNOX proteins (Oskn1-3) after particle bombardment of onion and rice cells and after transformation of Arabidopsis and rice with(More)
Inhibition of VEGF signalling effectively suppresses localized tumour growth but accelerates tumour invasiveness and micrometastasis by unknown mechanisms. To study the dynamic and reciprocal interactions between tumour cells and their microenvironment during these processes, we established a xenograft model by injecting tumour cells into the blood(More)
BACKGROUND Photosynthetic organisms have developed multiple protective mechanisms to prevent photodamage in vivo under high-light conditions. Cyanobacteria and red algae use phycobilisomes (PBsomes) as their major light-harvesting antennae complexes. The orange carotenoid protein in some cyanobacteria has been demonstrated to play roles in the(More)
High-resolution imaging of autophagy has been used intensively in cell culture studies, but so far it has been difficult to visualize this process in detail in whole animal models. In this study we present a versatile method for high-resolution imaging of microbial infection in zebrafish larvae by injecting pathogens into the tail fin. This allows(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the formation of bacterial biofilms on the surface of the electrode array of cochlear implants (CI) explanted because of device failure, without evidence of infection, by use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. SETTING Patients from 2 tertiary-care(More)
According to the Shifting Defense Hypothesis, invasive plants should trade-off their costly quantitative defense to cheaper qualitative defense and growth due to the lack of natural specialist enemies and the presence of generalist enemies in the introduced areas. Several studies showed that plant genotypes from the invasive areas had a better qualitative(More)
From a pool of transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants harboring an activator T-DNA construct, one mutant was identified that developed spontaneous necrotic spots (sns-D) on the rosette leaves under aseptic conditions. The sns-D mutation is dominant and homozygous plants are embryo lethal. The mutant produced smaller rosettes with a different(More)
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