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The metabolism of sulphur in angiosperms is reviewed under the aspect of exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of sulphur, heavy metals and metalloids. Because of the inconsistent use of the term 'metal tolerance', in this review the degree of tolerance to arsenic and heavy metals is divided into three categories: hypotolerance, basal tolerance(More)
Research on freshwater fungi has concentrated on their role in plant litter decomposition in streams. Higher fungi dominate over bacteria in terms of biomass, production and enzymatic substrate degradation. Microscopy-based studies suggest the prevalence of aquatic hyphomycetes, characterized by tetraradiate or sigmoid spores. Molecular studies have(More)
In the vascular plant Arabidopsis thaliana, synthesis of cysteine and its precursors O-acetylserine and sulfide is distributed between the cytosol, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. This compartmentation contributes to regulation of cysteine synthesis. In contrast to Arabidopsis, cysteine synthesis is exclusively restricted to chloroplasts in the unicellular(More)
The effect of cadmium (Cd) on fungal growth, Cd bioaccumulation and biosorption, and on the formation of potential heavy metal response indicators such as thiols, oxalate, and laccase was investigated in the white rot fungi Cerrena unicolor andAbortiporus biennis. Only the highest Cd concentration employed (200 microM) inhibited growth of C. unicolor,(More)
A HPLC-fluorescence method, using the fluorophore SBD-F (ammonium-7-fluorobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-sulfonate), was adapted for the quantification of metallothioneins and their isoforms from the Moroccan mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The method was first optimized using a rabbit liver metallothionein. The effects of EDTA, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine,(More)
Cd(2+) causes disturbance of metabolic pathways through severe damage on several levels. Here we present a comprehensive study of Cd(2+)-mediated effects on transcript, enzyme and metabolite levels in a plant without phytochelatin (PC). The moss Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S.G. was stressed with up to 10 microm Cd(2+) to investigate the regulation of(More)
The aquatic hyphomycete Heliscus lugdunensis and the terrestrial fungus Verticillium cf. alboatrum, both isolated from a highly polluted surface water, were investigated for their tolerance against Cd and Zn. Hl-H4 showed a 50% growth inhibition at 0.1 mM Cd, whereas at 0.7 mM Cd the growth of Va-H4 was only reduced by 30%. The fungi also showed a(More)
Biochemical responses to cadmium (Cd2+) and copper (Cu2+) exposure were compared in two strains of the aquatic hyphomycete (AQH) Heliscus lugdunensis. One strain (H4-2-4) had been isolated from a heavy metal polluted site, the other (H8-2-1) from a moderately polluted habitat. Conidia of the two strains differed in shape and size. Intracellular accumulation(More)
Aquatic environments like peat bogs are affected by anthropogenic metal input into the environment. These ecosystems are inhabited by unicellular green algae of the class Zygnematophyceae. In this study the desmid Micrasterias denticulata was stressed with 600 nM Cd, 10 μM Cr and 300 nM Cu for 3 weeks. GSH levels were measured with HPLC and did not differ(More)
The assessment of pollution in aquatic systems necessitates an accurate indication of toxicity of heavy metals for organisms and ecosystems. We used the stable nitrogen isotope 15N to estimate the influence of the heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn on the synthesis of nitrogen-containing fractions in the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica. This method permits(More)