Gerd Birkenmeier

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BACKGROUND Glyoxalases (Glo1 and Glo2) are involved in the glycolytic pathway by detoxifying the reactive methylglyoxal (MGO) into D-lactate in a two-step reaction using glutathione (GSH) as cofactor. Inhibitors of glyoxalases are considered as anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic agents. The recent finding that various polyphenols modulate Glo1 activity(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). It is involved in the receptor-mediated cellular clearance of the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) and in the perivascular drainage of the extracellular fluid. Microvascular changes are also associated with AD and have been discussed as a possible reason for altered perivascular(More)
To explore the role of alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2M-R/LRP) and its ligands in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), antibodies were raised against its alpha- and beta-subunits and their expression pattern in the CNS in AD and control cases was correlated with that of native and transformed(More)
Peptides derived from proteolytic degradation of the amyloid precursor protein, e.g., amyloid beta (A beta), are considered to be central to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Soluble A beta is present in measurable concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and blood. There are indications that soluble A beta present in circulation can cross the(More)
The deposition of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in the clearance of Aβ from brain and the APOE ε4 allele is a major risk factor for sporadic AD. We have recently shown that apoE is drained into the perivascular space (PVS), where it co-localizes with Aβ. To further clarify(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 is a multifunctional enzyme. The Asp/Asp genotype of the Ala140Asp polymorphism of the GSTO1 gene has been alleged to increase the risk of vascular dementia. The objective of this study is to address the question of whether common vessel disorders known to cause vascular dementia are modified in their(More)
Different types of atherosclerotic (AS) lesions can be distinguished histologically and represent different stages of AS plaque development. Late-stage lesions more frequently develop complications such as plaque rupture and thrombosis with vessel occlusion than early AS lesions. To clarify whether protective, destructive, and inflammatory proteins are(More)
A pentanucleotide deletion polymorphism in the gene of alpha2-macrolgobulin (alpha2-M) is suggested to be associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), though controversial results have been reported. The underlying assumption is that the intronic pentanucleotide deletion may affect the biological function and quantity of the inhibitor and thus(More)
BACKGROUND Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) and glyoxalase 2 (Glo2) are ubiquitously expressed cytosolic enzymes that catalyze the conversion of toxic alpha-oxo-aldehydes into the corresponding alpha-hydroxy acids using L-glutathione (GSH) as a cofactor. Human Glo1 exists in various isoforms; however, the nature of its modifications and their distinct functional(More)