Gerd Birkenmeier

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Mast cells (MCs) are considered major players in IgE-mediated allergic responses, but have also recently been recognized as active participants in innate as well as specific immune responses. Recent work provided evidence that MCs are able to activate B and T lymphocytes through the release of vesicles called exosomes. Here we demonstrate that exosomes,(More)
The LDL receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor (LRP1/A2MR) is a multifunctional cell-surface glycoprotein that endocytoses several structurally and functionally distinct ligands. In clinical studies different genomic variants of the LRP1/A2MR and its role in the development of degenerative diseases like atherosclerosis or Alzheimer's(More)
With all the incredible progress in scientific research over the past two decades, the trigger of the majority of autoimmune disorders remains largely elusive. Research on the biology of T helper type 17 (T(H)17) cells over the last decade not only clarified previous observations of immune regulations and disease manifestations, but also provided(More)
BACKGROUND Glyoxalases (Glo1 and Glo2) are involved in the glycolytic pathway by detoxifying the reactive methylglyoxal (MGO) into D-lactate in a two-step reaction using glutathione (GSH) as cofactor. Inhibitors of glyoxalases are considered as anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic agents. The recent finding that various polyphenols modulate Glo1 activity(More)
One unexpected feature of the human genome is the high structural variability across individuals. Frequently, large regions of the genome show structural polymorphisms and many vary in their abundance. However, accurate methods for the characterization and typing of such copy number variations (CNV) are needed. The defensin cluster at the human region(More)
We compared, using a combination of different immunological methods and by competitive PCR, the expression of the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2-M-R/LRP) in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. This receptor has previously been found in skin only in dermal cells associated with fibroblasts and(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). It is involved in the receptor-mediated cellular clearance of the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) and in the perivascular drainage of the extracellular fluid. Microvascular changes are also associated with AD and have been discussed as a possible reason for altered perivascular(More)
The deposition of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in the clearance of Aβ from brain and the APOE ε4 allele is a major risk factor for sporadic AD. We have recently shown that apoE is drained into the perivascular space (PVS), where it co-localizes with Aβ. To further clarify(More)
To explore the role of alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2M-R/LRP) and its ligands in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), antibodies were raised against its alpha- and beta-subunits and their expression pattern in the CNS in AD and control cases was correlated with that of native and transformed(More)