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BACKGROUND Major hallmarks in the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease are cellular energy depletion and oxidative stress leading to cellular dysfunction and death. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is an electron acceptor bridging mitochondrial complexes I and II/III and a potent antioxidant that consistently partially recovers the function of dopaminergic neurons.(More)
A high percentage of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show cognitive impairments in addition to the cardinal motor symptoms. These deficits primarily concern executive functions most probably linked to dysfunctions in prefrontal regions due to decreased dopaminergic transmission in fronto-striatal loops. To investigate possible associations between(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders affecting about 1% of Western populations older than age 50. The pathological hallmark of PD are Lewy bodies, that is, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in affected neurons of the substantia nigra. Recently, alpha-synuclein (alpha-SYN) has been identified as the main component of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate frequency, severity, and correlation of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) with motor complications in fluctuating Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS The Multicenter NonMotor Fluctuations in PD cross-sectional study used clinical examination of 10 NMS (dysphagia, anxiety, depression, fatigue, excessive sweating, inner restlessness, pain,(More)
Non-motor symptoms, such as psychiatric symptoms and autonomic dysfunction, are common co-morbid conditions in Parkinson's disease (PD) and major contributors to poor quality of life and disability. Within the group of neuropsychiatric conditions, depressive symptoms are the most common condition. Despite their frequency and importance, depressive symptoms(More)
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisytem degenerative disorder. In addition to motor symptoms such as akinesia, rigidity and tremor, various non-motor symptoms occur, which are still insufficiently diagnosed. Moreover, the frequently used scales and scores do not adequately detect these non-motor symptoms. The Non-motor Symptoms Questionnaire(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by its motor impairment. However, non-motor symptoms such as psychiatric disorders, autonomic disturbances and sleep disorders frequently complicate the course of the disease. In particular, psychiatric disturbances including cognitive impairment, depression and psychosis impact these patients considerably.(More)
Development of dyskinesia is a common phenomenon during the long-term course of Parkinson's disease. During the last few years, some but not all pathogenetic mechanisms causing dyskinesias in PD have become better understood. Severity of Parkinson's disease and levodopa dosing are the main clinical risk factors. Most concepts underline the significance of(More)
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) fluctuate in conjunction with motor oscillations in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), though little is known about the variability of NMS fluctuations in individual patients. We aimed to assess within-patient variability in frequency and severity of NMS during a series of five patient-perceived motor On and Off periods in 38(More)
Data on frequency, severity and correlations of NMS with motor complications are only available for a limited number of NMS. The NMS Scale (NMSS) is a validated tool to assess a broad range of NMS, which has not been used in NMS fluctuations. We assessed fluctuations of a broad range of non-motor symptom (NMS) for a 1-month time period in fluctuating(More)