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BACKGROUND Major hallmarks in the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease are cellular energy depletion and oxidative stress leading to cellular dysfunction and death. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is an electron acceptor bridging mitochondrial complexes I and II/III and a potent antioxidant that consistently partially recovers the function of dopaminergic neurons.(More)
Monitoring systems enable the long-term registration of tremor in patients with Parkinson's disease This method is useful in the objective measurement of tremor during the course of treatments. Indeed, the symptoms of tremor as well as the aggravating and attenuating influences can be observed under real-life conditions. The methodology of data recording(More)
A high percentage of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show cognitive impairments in addition to the cardinal motor symptoms. These deficits primarily concern executive functions most probably linked to dysfunctions in prefrontal regions due to decreased dopaminergic transmission in fronto-striatal loops. To investigate possible associations between(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders affecting about 1% of Western populations older than age 50. The pathological hallmark of PD are Lewy bodies, that is, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in affected neurons of the substantia nigra. Recently, alpha-synuclein (alpha-SYN) has been identified as the main component of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate frequency, severity, and correlation of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) with motor complications in fluctuating Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS The Multicenter NonMotor Fluctuations in PD cross-sectional study used clinical examination of 10 NMS (dysphagia, anxiety, depression, fatigue, excessive sweating, inner restlessness, pain,(More)
The object of the present study was to evaluate the hand tremor occurring under various conditions in 81 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to statistically analyze their relation to clinical rating items. We found that resting and action tremor have to be separated, whereas postural tremor can be related to either one of them. Resting tremor does(More)
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisytem degenerative disorder. In addition to motor symptoms such as akinesia, rigidity and tremor, various non-motor symptoms occur, which are still insufficiently diagnosed. Moreover, the frequently used scales and scores do not adequately detect these non-motor symptoms. The Non-motor Symptoms Questionnaire(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by its motor impairment. However, non-motor symptoms such as psychiatric disorders, autonomic disturbances and sleep disorders frequently complicate the course of the disease. In particular, psychiatric disturbances including cognitive impairment, depression and psychosis impact these patients considerably.(More)
Development of dyskinesia is a common phenomenon during the long-term course of Parkinson's disease. During the last few years, some but not all pathogenetic mechanisms causing dyskinesias in PD have become better understood. Severity of Parkinson's disease and levodopa dosing are the main clinical risk factors. Most concepts underline the significance of(More)
Approximately 25% of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) later develop dementia, with the typical characteristics as detailed in ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Differential diagnosis has to exclude dementia due to Lewy bodies, subcortical vascular encephalopathy and subcortical dementia due to progressive supranuclear paralysis or corticobasal(More)