Gerardo Villarreal

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BACKGROUND Reduced hippocampal volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients are thought to reflect specific changes of this structure. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have not consistently examined indices of overall brain atrophy, therefore it cannot be completely ruled out that hippocampal changes are explained by whole-brain(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report decreased hippocampal N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an indicator of neuronal integrity. However, other areas of the brain need to be explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the specificity of hippocampal NAA concentration(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have revealed decreases in the mid-sagittal area of the corpus callosum (CC) in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but at present no data are available in adult PTSD patients. We have previously reported decreased whole-brain white matter (WM) volume in adults with PTSD and now report corpus callosum(More)
PURPOSE Previous works show a pronounced disagreement on the reliability of stereo tests as screening tools for amblyopia and strabismus. This study's aim was to compare the ability of the Lang II, Frisby, Randot, Titmus, and TNO stereo tests to detect amblyopia and strabismus with visual acuity testing and cover testing. METHODS A total of 1035 school(More)
The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in outpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on a 12-week, open-label trial. Twenty-two subjects with DSM-IV diagnosis of PTSD participated; 16 were combat veterans. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptom severity assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD(More)
There is no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment for social phobia although data suggest efficacy for several drug classes, including beta-blockers, benzodiazepines, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The SSRIs are particularly attractive due to their favourable tolerance and safety(More)
PURPOSE To establish the distribution of visual acuity and the prevalence of residual amblyopia and other ocular disorders in a vision-screened population group of 12-13-year-old children. METHODS In total 1046 children were examined in a field study in Sweden. The examination included visual acuity, stereopsis, cover testing, red reflex, refractive(More)
Auditory sensory gating deficits have been reported in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the hemispheric and neuronal origins of this deficit are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate auditory sensory gating of the 50-ms response (M50) in patients diagnosed with PTSD by utilizing(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this work was to establish visual acuity norms in 17-18-year-olds. METHODS In a previous, population-based study carried out in 1998, a total of 1046 12-13-year-old children were examined with a full eye examination. In 2003, 25% (n=262) of these children were randomly selected and invited to a re-examination; 147 subjects agreed to(More)
BACKGROUND The vision of 12-13-year-olds in Sweden was examined in a field study. The study was designed as being a part of a large European-Latin American study, the DESAMI project. The objective was to evaluate the prevalence of residual amblyopia and ocular disorders, atiologies of subnormal vision and some normal visual parameters in this group of(More)