Gerard Salem

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Remote sensing, referring to the remote study of objects, was originally developed for Earth observation, through the use of sensors on board planes or satellites. Improvements in the use and accessibility of multi-temporal satellite-derived environmental data have, for 30 years, contributed to a growing use in epidemiology. Despite the potential of(More)
Data show that hypertension has become a public health problem in developing countries. Many studies have reported social disparities among the affected populations, but few of them pointed out spatial disparities within towns. We aimed to show that hypertension could be a good indicator of the medical change that occurs unequally in towns. A(More)
Following the launch of new satellites, remote sensing (RS) has been increasingly implicated in human health research for thirty years, providing a growing availability of images with higher resolution and spectral ranges. However, the scope of applications, beyond theoretical large potentialities, appears limited both by their technical nature and the(More)
Despite low endemicity, malaria remains a major health problem in urban areas where a high proportion of fevers are presumptively treated using anti-malarial drugs. Low acquired malaria immunity, behaviour of city-dwellers, access to health care and preventive interventions, and heterogenic suitability of urban ecosystems for malaria transmission contribute(More)
La mortalité par cancer aux grands âges reste peu analysée. Elle est en particulier marquée par la qualité de la certification à des âges où la comorbidité est fréquente. Une analyse des tendances sur les 30 dernières années et des disparités de mortalité permet de souligner le recul progressif de l’âge aux décès, le poids grandissant des cancers dans la(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine why patients attend dental-care facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and to improve understanding of the capacity of oral health-care services in urban west Africa. METHODS We studied a randomly selected sample of patients attending 15 dental-care facilities in Ouagadougou over a 1-year period in 2004. Data were collected using a(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, the availability and accessibility of oral health services are seriously constrained and the provision of essential oral care is limited. Reports from the region show a very low utilization of oral health care services, and visits to dental-care facilities are mostly undertaken for symptomatic reasons. The objectives of the(More)
OBJECTIVES To document the prevalence and the socio-spatial variations of obesity and to identify individual and household characteristics, lifestyles and dietary practices contributing to obesity and its socio-spatial distribution. DESIGN Population-based cross-sectional survey. We selected 1,570 households from four strata characterised as unstructured(More)
BACKGROUND Geographical objectives and probabilistic methods are difficult to reconcile in a unique health survey. Probabilistic methods focus on individuals to provide estimates of a variable's prevalence with a certain precision, while geographical approaches emphasise the selection of specific areas to study interactions between spatial characteristics(More)
Voltage noise characterization is an essential aspect of optimizing the shipped voltage of high-end processor based systems. Voltage noise, i.e. Variations in the supply voltage due to transient fluctuations on current, can negatively affect the robustness of the design if it is not properly characterized. Modeling and estimation of voltage noise in a(More)