Gerard Salem

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BACKGROUND Despite low endemicity, malaria remains a major health problem in urban areas where a high proportion of fevers are presumptively treated using anti-malarial drugs. Low acquired malaria immunity, behaviour of city-dwellers, access to health care and preventive interventions, and heterogenic suitability of urban ecosystems for malaria transmission(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, the availability and accessibility of oral health services are seriously constrained and the provision of essential oral care is limited. Reports from the region show a very low utilization of oral health care services, and visits to dental-care facilities are mostly undertaken for symptomatic reasons. The objectives of the(More)
BACKGROUND The aetiological diagnostic of fevers in Laos remains difficult due to limited laboratory diagnostic facilities. However, it has recently become apparent that both scrub and murine typhus are common causes of previous undiagnosed fever. Epidemiological data suggests that scrub typhus would be more common in rural areas and murine typhus in urban(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine why patients attend dental-care facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and to improve understanding of the capacity of oral health-care services in urban west Africa. METHODS We studied a randomly selected sample of patients attending 15 dental-care facilities in Ouagadougou over a 1-year period in 2004. Data were collected using a(More)
Voltage noise characterization is an essential aspect of optimizing the shipped voltage of high-end processor based systems. Voltage noise, i.e. Variations in the supply voltage due to transient fluctuations on current, can negatively affect the robustness of the design if it is not properly characterized. Modeling and estimation of voltage noise in a(More)
BACKGROUND Geographical objectives and probabilistic methods are difficult to reconcile in a unique health survey. Probabilistic methods focus on individuals to provide estimates of a variable's prevalence with a certain precision, while geographical approaches emphasise the selection of specific areas to study interactions between spatial characteristics(More)
Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing have been increasingly used in ecology and epidemiology, providing a spatial approach for animal health issues. Recent development of earth environmental satellites—i.e., their growing number, improving sensor resolutions and capabilities— has offered new opportunities to delineate possible habitats(More)