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The sequence of the ribonuclease from the ancestor of swamp buffalo, river buffalo, and ox, corresponding approximately to Pachyportax latidens, an extinct ruminant known from the fossil record, has been reconstructed using the rule of 'maximum parsimony'. This protein and two sequences that may have been intermediates in the evolution of modern(More)
Liver X receptor (LXR) α and LXRβ function as physiological sensors of cholesterol metabolites (oxysterols), regulating key genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism. LXRs have been extensively studied in both human and rodent cell systems, revealing their potential therapeutic value in the contexts of atherosclerosis and inflammatory diseases. The(More)
Renin is the rate-limiting enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) which controls blood pressure and volume. The biological function of renin is to cleave the N-terminus of angiotensinogen releasing the decapeptide, angiotensin I (ANGI). Subsequently, angiotensin I is further processed by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to produce(More)
This study compared the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile of the new renin inhibitor VTP-27999 in salt-depleted healthy volunteers, administered once daily (75, 150, 300, and 600 mg) for 10 days, versus placebo and 300 mg aliskiren. VTP-27999 was well tolerated with no significant safety issues. It was rapidly absorbed, attaining maximum plasma(More)
Liver X receptor (LXR) agonists have been reported to lower brain amyloid beta (Aβ) and thus to have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Structure and property based design led to the discovery of a series of orally bioavailable, brain penetrant LXR agonists. Oral administration of compound 18 to rats resulted in significant upregulation of(More)
To combat the increased morbidity and mortality associated with the developing diabetes epidemic new therapeutic interventions are desirable. Inhibition of intracellular cortisol generation from cortisone by blocking 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) has been shown to ameliorate the risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome. A(More)
A cDNA encoding human prepro-cathepsin E was introduced into the adenovirus-transformed HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cell line. The construct contained both a V5 peptide epitope and histidine tags at the carboxy terminus. Transfected cells efficiently secreted recombinant pro-cathepsin E into the culture medium. The secreted pro-cathepsin E was purified(More)
Structure-based drug design led to the identification of a novel class of potent, low MW alkylamine renin inhibitors. Oral administration of lead compound 21l, with MW of 508 and IC(50) of 0.47nM, caused a sustained reduction in mean arterial blood pressure in a double transgenic rat model of hypertension.
BACKGROUND The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) cascade is a major target for the clinical management of hypertension. Although inhibitors of various components of this cascade have been developed successfully, development of renin inhibitors has proven to be problematic. The development of these inhibitors has been hindered by poor(More)
Structure-based design led to the discovery of a novel class of renin inhibitors in which an unprecedented phenyl ring filling the S1 site is attached to the phenyl ring filling the S3 pocket. Optimization for several parameters including potency in the presence of human plasma, selectivity against CYP3A4 inhibition and improved rat oral bioavailability led(More)