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The recognition of microbial pathogens by the innate immune system involves Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Different TLRs recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns, with TLR-4 mediating the response to lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria. All TLRs have a Toll/IL-1 receptor(More)
The E26 avian leukemia virus encodes a transcriptional activator-type oncoprotein consisting of Gag, Myb, and Ets domains, and transforms early erythroid cells as well as myeloblasts. Surprisingly, we have found that "early erythroid" transformants obtained in culture are multipotent, since they can be induced to differentiate into myeloblasts and(More)
We have developed a sensitive quantitative RT-PCR procedure suitable for the analysis of small samples, including single cells, and have used it to measure levels of potassium channel mRNAs in a panel of human tissues and small numbers of cells grown in culture. The method involves an initial global amplification of cDNA derived from all added(More)
BACKGROUND Many differentiating tissues contain progenitor cells that differ in their commitment states but cannot be readily distinguished or segregated. Molecular analysis is therefore restricted to mixed populations or cell lines which may also be heterogeneous, and the critical differences in gene expression that might determine divergent development(More)
Recent microarray gene expression profiling studies have identified gene signatures predictive of outcome, so-called "indicator" genes, for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). However, measurement of these genes in routine practice remains difficult. We applied real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to polyA cDNAs prepared(More)
To determine the capacity of the chicken c-erbA (cTR-alpha) gene product in regulating expression of known thyroid hormone-responsive genes, both the cTR-alpha and the viral v-erbA genes were expressed in FAO cells, a rat hepatoma cell line defective for functional thyroid hormone receptors. Upon nuclear expression of the cTR-alpha protein the cells become(More)
There are few reliable markers for adult stem cells and none for those of the intestinal epithelium. Previously, indirect experimental approaches have predicted stem cell position and numbers. The Musashi-1 (Msi-1) gene encodes an RNA binding protein associated with asymmetric divisions in neural progenitor cells. Two-day-old, adult, and 4.5 h, 1-, 2-, 4-(More)
The SCL gene (also called Tal-1 or TCL5) was identified because of its association with chromosomal translocations in childhood T-cell lymphoid leukemias. SCL codes for a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor that can function as a transcriptional activator or repressor. In the adult, SCL expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells and tissues, but its(More)
We have examined the involvement of components of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling pathway in the transactivation of gene expression by the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. Transient transfection of cells with plasmids encoding wild-type MyD88, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1), and TRAF-6 drove p65-mediated transactivation. In addition, dominant(More)