Gerard E Kaiko

Learn More
Aberrant T-cell responses underpin a range of diseases, including asthma and allergy and autoimmune diseases. Pivotal immune elements of these diseases are the development of antigen-specific effector T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells, Th1 cells, or the recently defined Th17 cells that are associated with the clinical features and disease progression. In order to(More)
RATIONALE Chlamydial lung infection has been associated with asthma in children and adults. However, how chlamydial infection influences the development of immune responses that promote asthma remains unknown. OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of chlamydial infection at various ages on the development of allergic airway disease (AAD). METHODS Mouse(More)
There is strong epidemiological evidence that Chlamydia infection can lead to exacerbation of asthma. However, the mechanism(s) whereby chlamydial infection, which normally elicits a strong Th type 1 (Th1) immune response, can exacerbate asthma, a disease characterized by dominant Th type 2 (Th2) immune responses, remains unclear. In the present study, we(More)
RATIONALE One of the immunopathological features of allergic inflammation is the infiltration of helper T type 2 (Th2) cells to the site of disease. Activation of innate pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays a critical role in helper T type 1 cell differentiation, yet their contribution to the generation of Th2 responses to(More)
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways and there are no preventions or cures. Inflammatory cells through the secretion of cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules are thought to play a critical role in pathogenesis. Type 2 CD4(+) lymphocytes (Th2 cells) and their cytokines predominate in mild to moderate allergic asthma, whereas severe(More)
In the mammalian intestine, crypts of Leiberkühn house intestinal epithelial stem/progenitor cells at their base. The mammalian intestine also harbors a diverse array of microbial metabolite compounds that potentially modulate stem/progenitor cell activity. Unbiased screening identified butyrate, a prominent bacterial metabolite, as a potent inhibitor of(More)
Microbes interact with the host immune system via several potential mechanisms. One essential step for each mechanism is the method by which intestinal microbes or their antigens access specific host immune cells. Using genetically susceptible mice (dnKO) that develop spontaneous, fulminant colitis, triggered by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta), we(More)
Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection has long been associated with an increased risk for the development of childhood asthma and exacerbations of this disorder. Despite much research into the induction of Th2 responses by allergens and helminths, the factors associated with viral infection that predispose to Th2-regulated asthma remain(More)
INTRODUCTION Asthma is a major disease burden worldwide. Treatment with steroids and long acting β-agonists effectively manage symptoms in many patients but do not treat the underlying cause of disease and have serious side effects when used long term and in children. Therapies targeting the underlying causes of asthma are urgently needed. T helper type 2(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with unknown cause; however, allergic asthma is driven largely by Th2-type immune responses. The pathways that interact to induce Th1 and Th17-type immune responses are well understood; however, until recently the innate immune pathways involved in the induction of Th2-type immunity were unknown. In this(More)