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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and aromatic amines can be analyzed in particulate phase mainstream cigarette smoke using simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) as a unique sample clean-up step. All analytes are determined from the same smoke sample using GC-MS. The smoke from 20 cigarettes is collected on a Cambridge smoke pad(More)
A new procedure has been developed for the quantitation of aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke. Two solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup steps using different retention mechanisms are required to process the samples. The first step uses a cation-exchange cartridge, followed by a second step that uses a cartridge with a hydrophobic retention(More)
A significant proportion of the atmospheric pollution that exists particularly in urban areas arises from road vehicles and primarily cars. The European Commission (EC) have introduced a series of regulations, the so called EURO Emission directives from Euro I in 1991 to the present day Euro IV. This legislation and similar ones in other global regions have(More)
This investigation describes a detailed analysis of the fabrication and testing of optical fibre pressure and temperature sensors (OFPTS). The optical sensor of this research is based on an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) with integrated fibre Bragg grating (FBG) for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements. The sensor is fabricated(More)
A miniature sensor for accurate measurement of pressure (depth) with temperature compensation in the ocean environment is described. The sensor is based on an optical fibre Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) combined with a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG). The EFPI provides pressure measurements while the Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) provides temperature(More)
There has been a significant increase in the proliferation and implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in different disciplines, including the monitoring of maritime environments, healthcare systems, and industrial sectors. It has now become critical to address the security issues of data communication while considering sensor node constraints.(More)
This paper presents a review of inspection-class Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs). The review divides the classification of inspection-class ROVs; categorising the vehicles in order of size and capability. A state of the art technology review is undertaken, discussing various common subsystems of the ROV. Standard and novel ROV shapes and designs are(More)
This paper describes an optical fiber based system that has been developed for the monitoring of carbon dioxide emissions in situ within engines above 500 kW. Conventional sensors, reviewed here, fail to meet monitoring requirements, such as lifespan, accuracy, and robustness. This paper describes a sensor designed as a single point reflective probe(More)
Oceanic conditions play an important role in determining the effects of climate change and these effects can be monitored through the changes in the physical properties of sea water. In fact, Oceanographers use various probes for measuring the properties within the water column. CTDs (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth) provide profiles of physical and(More)