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OBJECTIVE To assess whether a food variety score (FVS) and/or a dietary diversity score (DDS) are good indicators of nutrient adequacy of the diet of South African children. METHODS Secondary data analyses were undertaken with nationally representative data of 1-8-year-old children (n = 2200) studied in the National Food Consumption Study in 1999. An(More)
OBJECTIVES Sleep deprivation and alcohol both impair driving performance. This study assessed the interactive effect of low-dose alcohol and extended wakefulness. DESIGN Repeated-measures, crossover design evaluating psychomotor and driving function in a non-sleep-deprived state and after extended wakefulness with and without low-dose alcohol. SETTING(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Previous studies have demonstrated that as little as 18 hours of sleep deprivation can cause deleterious effects on performance. It has also been suggested that sleep deprivation can cause a "tunnel-vision" effect, in which attention is restricted to the center of the visual field. The current study aimed to replicate these behavioral(More)
The trajectories and stability of self-reported sleep duration recorded at ages 13, 15, and 23 years on reported sleep duration at age 30 years among 1105 students (55% male) who participated in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health and Behaviour Study were examined. Questionnaire data were used to obtain demographic and sleep variables. Dichotomised short(More)
Ageing is associated with a decrease in the quality of night-time sleep with 30% of aged persons experiencing chronic insomnia. Treatment of insomnia typically involves the use of hypnotic medications and these have been associated with a range of negative outcomes in this population cohort. The development of age-related insomnia has been linked, in part,(More)
Like enucleation, lateral hypothalamic (LH) lesions sever the connection between the retina and the pineal thereby simulating ambient exposure to constant darkness. While LH lesions have been employed to study either circadian function or Parkinson's disease (PD) independently, the application of such lesions to study circadian involvement specifically in(More)
The main sources of stress reported by 423 Australian final-year high school students using the Academic Stress Questionnaire were school-related as expected. The highest sources of this stress were examinations and outcomes, too much to do, worry over future, making choices about career, studying for examinations, amount to learn, need to do well imposed(More)
Sleep loss, widespread in today’s society and associated with a number of clinical conditions, has a detrimental effect on a variety of cognitive domains including attention. This study examined the sequelae of sleep deprivation upon BOLD fMRI activation during divided attention. Twelve healthy males completed two randomized sessions; one after 27 h of(More)
CONTEXT The aging process is associated with physiological changes that affect sleep. In older adults, undiagnosed and untreated insomnia may cause impaired daily function and reduced quality of life (QoL). Insomnia is also a risk factor for accidents and falls that are the main cause of accidental deaths in older adults and, therefore, is associated with(More)
Animal models for neuropsychiatric disorders are implemented for the purpose of investigating a single or multiple aspects of a specific disease entity. In Parkinson's disease (PD) several models have been utilised to study the biochemical and behavioural consequences of dopamine (DA) neurone degeneration with the intent of further understanding the(More)