Geraldine M. Gitlin

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Avidin and its bacterial analogue streptavidin exhibit similarly high affinities toward the vitamin biotin. The extremely high affinity of these two proteins has been utilized as a powerful tool in many biotechnological applications. Although avidin and streptavidin have similar tertiary and quaternary structures, they differ in many of their properties.(More)
Streptavidin, the non-glycosylated bacterial analogue of the egg-white glycoprotein avidin, was modified with the tryptophan-specific reagent 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl (Hnb) bromide. As with avidin, complete loss of biotin-binding activity was achieved upon modification of an average of one tryptophan residue per streptavidin subunit. Tryptic peptides(More)
Egg-white avidin was modified with the tryptophan-specific reagent 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide. The complete loss of biotin-binding activity was achieved upon modification of an average of one tryptophan residue per avidin subunit. The identity of the modified residues was determined by isolating the relevant tryptic and chymotryptic peptides from(More)
Egg-white avidin was treated with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Modification of an average of one lysine residue per avidin subunit caused the complete loss of biotin binding. Tryptic peptides obtained from the 2,4-dinitrophenylated avidin were fractionated by reversed-phase h.p.l.c. Three peptides contained the 2,4-dinitrophenyl group. Amino acid analysis(More)
The involvement of tyrosine in the biotin-binding sites of the egg-white glycoprotein avidin and the bacterial protein streptavidin was examined by using the tyrosine-specific reagent p-nitrobenzenesulphonyl fluoride (Nbs-F). Modification of an average of about 0.5 mol of tyrosine residue/mol of avidin subunit caused the complete loss of biotin binding.(More)
Synthesis of serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was studied in 16 human embryos and fetuses from 4.2-18 weeks of gestation by incubation of selected tissues in radiolabeled amino acids followed by immunoelectrophoresis of the culture fluids and radioautography. Relatively large amounts of radioactive AFP, judged by relative intensity of AFP precipitation line(More)
A new method for the preparation of a more efficient, stable iminobiotin-containing resin for the isolation of streptavidin was developed. CL-Sepharose was activated with p-nitrophenyl chloroformate, and the resultant carbonate derivative was reacted with diaminohexane. Subsequent reaction of the amino-containing resin with iminobiotin-N-hydroxysuccinimide(More)
We applied the protein photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-c.i.d.n.p.) method to explore the conformation of the side chains of tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine residues in three biotin-binding proteins. The c.i.d.n.p. spectra of avidin, streptavidin and 'core' streptavidin were compared with those of their complexes with biotin(More)
The binding of biotin to tetrameric avidin changes the environment of tryptophan residues. Binding reduces the total tryptophan fluorescence by 34%, shifts the emission peak from 337 to 324 nm, and reduces the fluorescence bandwidth from 61 to 46 nm. These changes are consistent with the movement of tryptophans to a nonpolar, internal environment. In the(More)