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Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), i. e., the quantification of serum or plasma concentrations of medications for dose optimization, has proven a valuable tool for the patient-matched psychopharmacotherapy. Uncertain drug adherence, suboptimal tolerability, non-response at therapeutic doses, or pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions are typical situations(More)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is a valid tool to optimise pharmacotherapy. It enables the clinician to adjust the dosage of drugs according to the characteristics of the individual patient. In psychiatry, TDM is an established procedure for lithium, some antidepressants and antipsychotics. In spite of its obvious advantages, however, the use of TDM in(More)
The apparent in vivo dissociation constant (KA) and relative efficacy values for alfentanil, etonitazene, morphine, and nalbuphine were determined by comparing the effects of these agonists in the presence of buprenorphine with the effects of these agonists alone in the rhesus monkey tail-withdrawal procedure. Initial time course studies of buprenorphine(More)
The effects of butorphanol were studied in assays of antinociception, respiratory depression, sedation, diuresis and reinforcing effects in rhesus monkeys, and opioid binding in monkey brain. Butorphanol (0.003-0.1 mg/kg s.c.) was effective in the warm-water tail withdrawal assay in 50 degrees C water but not in 55 degrees C. Over a similar dose range,(More)
The current public debate on nicotine concentrates on the abuse potential of nicotine per se. However, little is known about the interaction of nicotine with other drugs of well-established abuse liability such as cocaine. Indeed, cigarette smoking increases the intake of cocaine and other drugs of abuse. In order to test if these epidemiological data are(More)
The determination of the affinity and efficacy of an agonist in functional (as opposed to radioligand binding) experiments is necessary to explain its potency. Using modeled dose-response data both in their ideal form and with an added average deviation as well as previously published experimental data, a variety of analytical approaches were compared which(More)
In behavioral experiments, the cinnamoylaminomorphinone clocinnamox (CCAM) has been shown to act as an insurmountable antagonist of mu, but not delta or kappa opioid agonists. In contrast, CCAM displayed only moderate mu selectivity (29:6:1 for mu:delta:kappa) in radioligand displacement experiments using mouse brain membranes. In the present study, the(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is one of the most prevalent illegal drugs of abuse among European adolescents, a population not generally experienced with respect to "hard" drugs such as cocaine. We, therefore, determined the reinforcing effect of intravenously self-administered MDMA in a fixed ratio 1 time-out 150 s schedule of(More)
In a warm-water tail withdrawal antinociception assay performed at 45, 50 and 55 degrees C in the rhesus monkey, the irreversible opioid antagonist clocinnamox at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg s.c. produced an acute rightward shift of the dose-response curves of the selective mu opioid agonists alfentanil and morphine at all tested temperatures. In addition,(More)
Experiments in a rat tail-withdrawal assay tested the hypothesis that the magnitude and pattern of antagonism of μ opiate agonists by the insurmountable μ opioid antagonist clocinnamox are inversely related to agonist efficacy. In addition, these experiments examined whether this antagonism could be quantified to yield apparent affinity and efficacy(More)