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Understanding how thymic selection imparts self-peptide-MHC complex restriction and a high degree of self tolerance on the T cell repertoire requires a detailed description of the parameters that shape the MHC ligand repertoire of distinct thymic antigen-presenting cells and of how these cells communicate with T cells. Several recent discoveries pertaining(More)
Anaemia is a chief determinant of global ill health, contributing to cognitive impairment, growth retardation and impaired physical capacity. To understand further the genetic factors influencing red blood cells, we carried out a genome-wide association study of haemoglobin concentration and related parameters in up to 135,367 individuals. Here we identify(More)
Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial for preventing autoimmunity. We have demonstrated that depletion of Foxp3(+) Tregs results in the development of a scurfy-like disease, indicating that Foxp3(-) effector T cells are sufficient to induce autoimmunity. It has been postulated that nonfunctional Tregs carrying potentially self-reactive T cell(More)
According to the "two-step model," the intrathymic generation of CD4⁺ regulatory T (T(reg)) cells segregates into a first, T cell receptor (TCR)-driven phase and a second, cytokine-dependent phase. The initial TCR stimulus gives rise to a CD25⁺Foxp3⁻ developmental intermediate. These precursors subsequently require cytokine signaling to establish the mature(More)
Breast cancer is the most common female cancer, affecting approximately one in eight women during their life-time. Besides environmental triggers and hormones, inherited mutations in the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) or BRCA2 genes markedly increase the risk for the development of breast cancer. Here, using two different mouse models, we show that genetic(More)
Pheochromocytomas are rare tumours, with an incidence of 1-2 per million which arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. They occur sporadically or as part of dominantly inherited cancer syndromes like multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2A and 2B) and others. Continuous cell lines, not available so far, are essential tools for studies in these(More)
The HECT domain E3 ligase HACE1 has been identified as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers. Here, we report that HACE1 is a central gatekeeper of TNFR1-induced cell fate. Genetic inactivation of HACE1 inhibits TNF-stimulated NF-κB activation and TNFR1-NF-κB-dependent pathogen clearance in vivo. Moreover, TNF-induced apoptosis was impaired in hace1 mutant(More)
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