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Survival from onset of symptoms was calculated for two series of MS patients, a population-based epidemiologic series from southern Lower Saxony of 224 cases, and a revised hospital series of 1429 cases from 11 neurologic centers throughout the Federal Republic of Germany. Median survival for the epidemiologic series was 35-42 years, with no finer estimate(More)
The detection of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies by standard procedures such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay (CDC) or flow cytometric (FACS) analysis is limited by its low sensitivity and the quality of the donor cells. Therefore, an ELISA-based technique was employed using solid phase-immobilized monoclonal antibodies to capture HLA class I(More)
Previous studies had shown that donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies may highly influence the survival rate of corneal allografts, although the anterior chamber generally represents an immune-privileged compartment of the eye. We postulated that the introduction of a novel crossmatch procedure for the detection of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies in(More)
Antibodies directed against HLA antigens of a given donor represent the most prominent cause for hyper-acute and acute rejections. In order to select recipients without donor-specific antibodies the complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC-) crossmatch as the standard procedure was established. As a functional assay it strongly depends on the availability of(More)
Allografting patients with human leukocyte antigens (HLA) which are recognized by preformed antibodies constitutes the main cause for hyper-acute or acute rejections. In order to select recipients without these donor-specific antibodies, the complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch (CDC-CM) assay was developed as a standard procedure about forty years(More)
In normal rat liver, anaphylatoxin C5a receptors (C5aR) are only expressed by nonparenchymal cells, mainly Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells, but not by parenchymal cells, i.e., hepatocytes (HC). Nevertheless, C5a stimulates glucose output by HC. This HC-specific defense reaction is induced indirectly via prostanoids secreted by the C5aR-expressing(More)
Rat Kupffer cells (KC), hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) all express the C5a receptor (C5aR) constitutively in contrast to hepatocytes (HC). HSC showed an unexpectedly high level of expression of the C5aR. As these cells are known to play a key role in the induction of liver fibrosis we hypothesized that C5a may possibly(More)
The influence of sex, age at onset, course of the disease and initial symptomatology on the mortality of patients with multiple sclerosis is analysed. A sample of 1926 patients was followed up prospectively over 4.9 years. Both, the mortality ratio (number of observed to expected deaths) and the excess death rate are calculated. Whereas the mortality ratio(More)
The complement factors I (FI) and H (FH) are complement regulatory proteins. FI, a highly glycosylated serine protease of 88 kDa cleaves the alpha-chains of both complement components C3b and C4b, thereby inactivating them. Complement FH, a glycoprotein of 150 kDa which is composed of 20 short consensus repeats synergizes with FI by increasing the affinity(More)
A two-sided enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been established for reliable, specific and sensitive determination of synaptophysin (SYN), an intrinsic membrane protein of the small synaptic vesicles. This ELISA used a highly specific monoclonal antibody (SY 38) as capture reagent and a specific SYN antiserum in combination with a secondary(More)